Alphapapillomavirus

VIRION

Non-enveloped. Small, icosahedral, about 60 nm in size. A single molecule of circular dsDNA is contained within the T=7 icosahedral capsid, which is composed of 72 pentamers.

GENOME

Circular dsDNA, about 8 kb in size, associated with cellular histones.
On rare non-specific recombination, the viral genome can be integrated in host chromosome. This inactivates the integrated virus but can gives the host cell a replicative advantage sometimes leading to malignant tumours.

GENE EXPRESSION

Only one strand of the genome is transcribed and yield two classes of proteins expressed by alternative splicing :
a) Early Proteins: non-structural regulatory proteins (E1-E7).
b) Late Proteins: the structural proteins L1 and L2. E7 can be expressed by leaky scanning from the E6 mRNA.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Replication is divided in two distinct steps that are linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelial cell:

a) The plasmid replication takes place in the basal squamous epithelial cells. It corresponds to viral DNA replication in synchrony with the host cell chromosome in order to ensures an average of one viral genome per basal cell.

  1. Attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis into vesicles in the basal squamous epithelial cell.
  2. Transport to the nucleus and uncoating of the viral DNA.
  3. Early-region transcription and translation of the early proteins.
  4. Steady-state viral DNA nuclear replication. Requires the origin of DNA replication in cis and the viral E1 and E2 proteins in trans.
b) The vegetative replication, which occurs in differentiated keratinocytes. In these cells, which no longer undergo cellular DNA synthesis, there is a burst of viral DNA synthesis with active production of virions.
  1. Vegetative viral DNA synthesis.
  2. Transcription of the late region.
  3. Capsid proteins L1 and L2 synthesis.
  4. Nuclear capsid assembly and release of viruses.

Host-virus interaction

Adaptive immune response inhibition

The E5 protein in papillomaviruses plays a role in the inhibition of host adaptive response by down-regulating the cell surface expression of MHC class I .

Apoptosis modulation

The HPV16-E6 protein has the ability to prevent apoptosis of infected cells through its binding to FADD and caspase 8 .

Cell-cycle modulation

The E7 protein from the high-risk HPV type 18 forms a complex with cyclin E and regulates transit from G1 to S. E7 binds also cyclin A, which regulates transit through the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle .

Innate immune response inhibition

Papillomaviruses inhibits the cascade leading to production of interferon-beta by targeting the IRF3 cellular protein. Indeed, The viral E6 protein is able to interact with host IRF3 and inhibits its transcriptional activity .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

303 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 293 complete proteome entries)

10 entries

Human papillomavirus type 11 reference strain

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VE1_HPV11Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV11Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV11Protein E4
VE5A_HPV11Probable protein E5A
VE5B_HPV11Probable protein E5B
VE6_HPV11Protein E6
VE7_HPV11Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV11Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV11Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV11Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

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VE1_HPV16Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV16Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV16Protein E4 (E1^E4)
VE5_HPV16Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV16Protein E6
VE7_HPV16Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV16Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV16Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV16Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 18 reference strain

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VE1_HPV18Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV18Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV18Protein E4
VE5_HPV18Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV18Protein E6
VE7_HPV18Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV18Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV18Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV18Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 31 reference strain

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VE1_HPV31Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV31Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV31Protein E4
VE5_HPV31Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV31Protein E6
VE7_HPV31Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV31Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV31Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV31Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 33 reference strain

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VE1_HPV33Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV33Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV33Protein E4 (E1^E4)
VE5_HPV33Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV33Protein E6
VE7_HPV33Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV33Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV33Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV33Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 35 reference strain

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VE1_HPV35Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV35Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV35Protein E6
VE7_HPV35Protein E7
VL1_HPV35Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV35Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 51 reference strain

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VE1_HPV51Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV51Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV51Protein E4
VE5_HPV51Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV51Protein E6
VE7_HPV51Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV51Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV51Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV51Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 58 reference strain

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VE1_HPV58Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV58Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV58Protein E4
VE5_HPV58Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV58Protein E6
VE7_HPV58Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV58Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV58Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV58Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Human papillomavirus type 29 reference strain

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VE1_HPV29Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV29Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV29Protein E4
VE6_HPV29Protein E6
VE7_HPV29Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV29Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV29Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV29Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Human papillomavirus type 54 reference strain

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VE1_HPV54Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV54Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV54Protein E4
VE6_HPV54Protein E6
VE7_HPV54Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV54Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV54Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV54Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1 (PCPV-1) reference strain

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VE1_PCPV1Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_PCPV1Regulatory protein E2
VE4_PCPV1Probable protein E4
VE5_PCPV1Probable protein E5
VE6_PCPV1Protein E6
VE7_PCPV1Protein E7
VL1_PCPV1Major capsid protein L1
VL2_PCPV1Minor capsid protein L2

7 entries

Human papillomavirus type 2a reference strain

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VE1_HPV2AReplication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV2ARegulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV2AProtein E4
VE6_HPV2AProtein E6
VE7_HPV2AProtein E7
VL1_HPV2AMajor capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV2AMinor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 10 reference strain

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VE1_HPV10Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV10Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV10Protein E6
VE7_HPV10Protein E7
VL1_HPV10Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV10Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 26 reference strain

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VE1_HPV26Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV26Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV26Protein E6
VE7_HPV26Protein E7
VL1_HPV26Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV26Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 27 reference strain

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VE1_HPV27Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV27Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV27Protein E6
VE7_HPV27Protein E7
VL1_HPV27Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV27Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 32 reference strain

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VE1_HPV32Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV32Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV32Protein E6
VE7_HPV32Protein E7
VL1_HPV32Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV32Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 34 reference strain

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VE1_HPV34Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV34Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV34Protein E6
VE7_HPV34Protein E7
VL1_HPV34Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV34Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 44 reference strain

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VE1_HPV44Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV44Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV44Protein E6
VE7_HPV44Protein E7
VL1_HPV44Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV44Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 45 reference strain

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VE1_HPV45Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV45Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV45Protein E6
VE7_HPV45Protein E7
VL1_HPV45Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV45Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 52 reference strain

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VE1_HPV52Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV52Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV52Protein E6
VE7_HPV52Protein E7
VL1_HPV52Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV52Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 61 reference strain

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VE1_HPV61Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV61Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV61Protein E6
VE7_HPV61Protein E7
VL1_HPV61Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV61Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 69 reference strain

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VE1_HPV69Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV69Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV69Protein E6
VE7_HPV69Protein E7
VL1_HPV69Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV69Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 7 reference strain

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VE1_HPV07Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV07Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV07Protein E6
VE7_HPV07Protein E7
VL1_HPV07Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV07Minor capsid protein L2

5 entries

Human papillomavirus type 56 reference strain

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VE2_HPV56Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV56Protein E6
VE7_HPV56Protein E7
VL1_HPV56Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV56Minor capsid protein L2

2 entries

Human papillomavirus type 62 reference strain

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VL1_HPV62Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV62Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 13

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VE1_HPV13Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV13Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV13Protein E4
VE5_HPV13Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV13Protein E6
VE7_HPV13Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV13Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV13Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV13Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 35

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VE4_HPV35Protein E4
VE5_HPV35Probable protein E5
VE8E2_HPV35Protein E8^E2C

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 39

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VE1_HPV39Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV39Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV39Protein E4
VE5_HPV39Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV39Protein E6
VE7_HPV39Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV39Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV39Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV39Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 42

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VE1_HPV42Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV42Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV42Protein E4
VE5_HPV42Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV42Protein E6
VE7_HPV42Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV42Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV42Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV42Minor capsid protein L2

9 entries

Human papillomavirus type 6b

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VE1_HPV6BReplication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV6BRegulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV6BProtein E4 (E1^E4)
VE5A_HPV6BProbable protein E5A
VE5B_HPV6BProbable protein E5B
VE6_HPV6BProtein E6
VE7_HPV6BProtein E7
VL1_HPV6BMajor capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV6BMinor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Human papillomavirus type 28

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VE1_HPV28Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV28Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV28Protein E4
VE6_HPV28Protein E6
VE7_HPV28Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV28Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV28Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV28Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Human papillomavirus type 57

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VE1_HPV57Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV57Regulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV57Protein E4
VE6_HPV57Protein E6
VE7_HPV57Protein E7
VE8E2_HPV57Protein E8^E2C
VL1_HPV57Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV57Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Human papillomavirus type 6a

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VE1_HPV6AReplication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV6ARegulatory protein E2
VE4_HPV6AProtein E4
VE5A_HPV6AProbable protein E5A
VE6_HPV6AProtein E6
VE7_HPV6AProtein E7
VL1_HPV6AMajor capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV6AMinor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Rhesus papillomavirus type 1 (Rhpv 1)

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VE1_RHPV1Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_RHPV1Regulatory protein E2
VE4_RHPV1Probable protein E4
VE5_RHPV1Probable protein E5
VE6_RHPV1Protein E6
VE7_RHPV1Protein E7
VL1_RHPV1Major capsid protein L1
VL2_RHPV1Minor capsid protein L2

7 entries

Human papillomavirus type 70

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VE1_HPV70Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV70Regulatory protein E2
VE5_HPV70Probable protein E5
VE6_HPV70Protein E6
VE7_HPV70Protein E7
VL1_HPV70Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV70Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 30

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VE1_HPV30Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV30Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV30Protein E6
VE7_HPV30Protein E7
VL1_HPV30Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV30Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 40

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VE1_HPV40Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV40Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV40Protein E6
VE7_HPV40Protein E7
VL1_HPV40Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV40Minor capsid protein L2

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 66

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VE1_HPV66Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV66Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV66Protein E6
VE7_HPV66Protein E7
VL1_HPV66Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV66Minor capsid protein L2

5 entries

Human papillomavirus type 3

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VE1_HPV03Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV03Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV03Protein E6
VL1_HPV03Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV03Minor capsid protein L2

5 entries

Human papillomavirus type 53

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VE2_HPV53Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV53Protein E6
VE7_HPV53Protein E7
VL1_HPV53Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV53Minor capsid protein L2

4 entries

Human papillomavirus type 55

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VE2_HPV55Regulatory protein E2
VE7_HPV55Protein E7
VL1_HPV55Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV55Minor capsid protein L2

3 entries

Human papillomavirus type 43

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VE6_HPV43Protein E6
VL1_HPV43Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV43Minor capsid protein L2

3 entries

Human papillomavirus type 68

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VE6_HPV68Protein E6
VE7_HPV68Protein E7
VL1_HPV68Major capsid protein L1

3 entries

Human papillomavirus type 6c

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VE4_HPV6CProbable protein E4
VE5A_HPV6CProbable protein E5A
VE5B_HPV6CProbable protein E5B

2 entries

Human papillomavirus type 67

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VL1_HPV67Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV67Minor capsid protein L2

2 entries

Human papillomavirus type 82

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VL1_HPV82Major capsid protein L1
VL2_HPV82Minor capsid protein L2

2 entries

Human papillomavirus type 94

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VE6_HPV94Protein E6
VE7_HPV94Protein E7

1 entry

Human papillomavirus type 59


VE1_HPV59Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)

1 entry

Human papillomavirus type 72


VE1_HPV72Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)

1 entry

Human papillomavirus type 73


VE1_HPV73Replication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)

1 entry

Pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1C (PCPV-1C)


VE1_PCPVCReplication protein E1 (EC 3.6.4.12) (ATP-dependent helicase E1)