Molecular biology

Filamentous 970 nm long for Ebolavirus. Diameter is about 80nm.


Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, about 18-19 kb in size. Encodes for seven proteins.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes. mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by the L protein during synthesis.
The primary product of the unedited transcript of GP gene yields a smaller non-structural glycoprotein sGP which is efficiently secreted from infected cells. RNA editing allows expression of full-length GP.



  1. Attachment to host receptors through GP glycoprotein like DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR
  2. Cellular receptor like HAVCR1(TIM1) binds phosphatidyl serine on virion membrane and a signal is transduced into the cell that trigger the macropinocytosis program by apoptotic mimicry.
  3. The virion enters the cell by Macropinocytosis. In some culture cells, GP glycoprotein can be processed by host Cathepsin L and Cathepsin B into 19kDa GP1. But this processing is not happening in all cells or for all ebolavirus.
  4. GP1 interacts with host NPC1, in late macropinosome and promotes Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane. The ribonucleocapsid is then released into the cytoplasm.
  5. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
  6. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  7. The ribonucleocapsid interacts with the matrix protein, and buds via the host ESCRT complexes from the plasma membrane, releasing the virion .

Host-virus interaction

Inhibition of host Interferon induction

Vp35 protein prevents host interferon induction by Inhibition of host IKBKE by virus

Inhibition of host interferon signaling

Vp24 protein block interferon signaling by preventing STAT1 signaling. May act by binding host karyopherin ? proteins, thereby preventing them from transporting the tyrosine-phosphorylated transcription factor STAT1 to the nucleus. May directly bind to STAT1 to prevent its signaling .

Antigenic subvertion

Small Glycoprotein (sGP) is a secreted truncated version of GP that prevent host antibodies anti-GP to effectively neutralize it .

Inhibition of acquired immune response

Ebolavirus may encode for a superantigen, thereby inhibiting Vbeta t cells

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

62 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 45 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain

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L_EBOZMRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_EBOZMNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOZMEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBOZMMembrane-associated protein VP24
VP30_EBOZMMinor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)
VP35_EBOZMPolymerase cofactor VP35
VP40_EBOZMMatrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBOZMPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOZMSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

9 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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L_EBORERNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_EBORENucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOREEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBOREMembrane-associated protein VP24
VP30_EBOREMinor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)
VP35_EBOREPolymerase cofactor VP35
VP40_EBOREMatrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBOREPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBORESuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

9 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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L_EBORRRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_EBORRNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBORREnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBORRMembrane-associated protein VP24
VP30_EBORRMinor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)
VP35_EBORRPolymerase cofactor VP35
VP40_EBORRMatrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBORRPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBORRSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

9 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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L_EBOSURNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_EBOSUNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOSUEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBOSUMembrane-associated protein VP24
VP30_EBOSUMinor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)
VP35_EBOSUPolymerase cofactor VP35
VP40_EBOSUMatrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBOSUPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOSUSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

9 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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L_EBOZ5RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_EBOZ5Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOZ5Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBOZ5Membrane-associated protein VP24
VP30_EBOZ5Minor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)
VP35_EBOZ5Polymerase cofactor VP35
VP40_EBOZ5Matrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBOZ5Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOZ5Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

5 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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NCAP_EBOG4Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOG4Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VP24_EBOG4Membrane-associated protein VP24
VP40_EBOG4Matrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)
VSGP_EBOG4Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

3 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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NCAP_EBOSBNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VGP_EBOSBEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOSBPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

3 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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L_EBOSMRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
VGP_EBOSMEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOSMPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBORSEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBORSPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Tai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)

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VGP_TAFVCEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_TAFVCPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOECEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOECPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)