Human immunodeficiency virus 2

Molecular biology

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic in shape, 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of about 9 kb, with a 5’-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 600nt long at the 5’ and 3’ ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promotor elements in the 5’ LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag and gag-(pro)pol (1 ribosomal frameshift) polyproteins. The uncompletely spliced mRNAs encode env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins, and the accessory proteins vif, vpx, and vpr. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rev, Tat and Nef accessory proteins. Rev escorts unspliced and uncompletely spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host CD4 receptors through the SU glycoprotein (gp120), with subsequent interaction with a chemokine coreceptor.
  2. TM glycoprotein (gp41) mediates fusion with ?the host cell membrane or ?the endosomal membrane like HIV-1?. Nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm, with partial uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA which is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the integrase (=provirus).
  5. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  6. Translation of spliced viral RNAs produces tat, rev, and nef proteins.
  7. Rev mediates nuclear export of the uncompletely spliced RNAs.
  8. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins.
  9. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  10. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  11. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

108 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 90 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain

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ENV_HV2BEEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2BEGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2BEProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2BEGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2BEProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2BEProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2BEVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2BEProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2BEProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2CAEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2CAGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2CAProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2CAGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2CAProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2CAProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2CAVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2CAProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2CAProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2D1Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2D1Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2D1Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2D1Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2D1Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2D1Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2D1Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2D1Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2D1Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2G1Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2G1Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2G1Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2G1Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2G1Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2G1Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2G1Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2G1Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2G1Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2KREnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2KRGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2KRProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2KRGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2KRProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2KRProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2KRVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2KRProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2KRProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2NZEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2NZGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2NZProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2NZGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2NZProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2NZProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2NZVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2NZProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2NZProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2ROEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2ROGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2ROProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2ROGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2ROProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2ROProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2ROVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2ROProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2ROProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2SBEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2SBGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2SBProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2SBGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2SBProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2SBProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2SBVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2SBProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2SBProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2STEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2STGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2STProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2STGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2STProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2STProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2STVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2STProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2STProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2EHEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2EHGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2EHProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2EHGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2EHProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2EHProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2EHVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2EHProtein Vpr (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2EHProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2UCEnvelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2UCGag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2UCProtein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2UCGag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2UCProtein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
TAT_HV2UCProtein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2UCVirion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2UCProtein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2UCProtein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

8 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2D2Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)
GAG_HV2D2Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)
NEF_HV2D2Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2D2Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)
REV_HV2D2Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
VIF_HV2D2Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2D2Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2D2Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST/24.1C#2) (HIV-2)


ENV_HV2S2Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)