RNA editing


Some viruses encode genes that express multiple proteins by using overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) through a process known as RNA editing. In these viruses, the RNA polymerase reads the same template base more than once, creating insertions (0, 1, 2, etc, base insertions), leading to different mRNAs, thereby generating different types of proteins. There are two king of mRNA editing:
- By co-transcriptional editing through polymerase slippage.
- By post-transcriptional editing.


Editing of genomic template would be disastrous, therefore this happens only during transcription in negative stranded RNA viruses, or the edited genomic RNA is not a valid template for replication for deltavirus.


Note: The canonic definition of editing implies a post-transcriptional event, but in virology this term is accepted for polymerase slippage.

co-transcriptional editing, Negative stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Respirovirus BPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Respirovirus hPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AAAGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Henipavirus Nipah virus 1 G P / V / W 50-25-25 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Respirovirus Sendai virus 1 G P / V / W 70-25-5 GACUCAACAAAAAAGGG 934-950
Morbilivirus Measles virus 1 G P / V / W 60-35-5 ACACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Phocine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GAACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Rinderpest virus 1 G P / V / W - AAACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Canine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GGAUCCAUUAAAAAGGG 675-691
Morbilivirus Dolphin morbillivirus 1 G P / V / W - AAAUCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Rubulavirus Simian virus 5 2 G V / P - CAUCGAUUUUAAGAGGG 474-490
Rubulavirus Mumps virus 2 G V / P - AACAGAAUUUAAGAGGG 447-463
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 4 2 G V / P - CAGGAUAUUUAAGAGGG 441-457 -
Rubulavirus La piedad, Michoacan virus 2 G V / P - AGCAGUUUUAAAAAGGG 486-502
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 2 2 G V / P - CCCCAACUUUAAGAGGG 470-486
Ebolavirus Ebolavirus 1 A sGP / GP / ssGP - GACCCUUUGAUUUUUUU 870-886


co-transcriptional editing, Positive stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98-2 CUCCAUUUUGGAAAAAA 2954
Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.4-1.6 ......GUGGAAAAAA 2913
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus 1 A P1 / P1N-PISPO 88.2/11.8 .......AUGGAAAAAA 1389
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus +1 A or -1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.2/1.2 or 0.6 UGAGCUUAUGGAAAAAA 3955


Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

129 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 86 complete proteome entries)

3 entries

Hendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain

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PHOSP_HENDHPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_HENDHNon-structural protein V
W_HENDHProtein W

3 entries

Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain

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PHOSP_NDVB1Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_NDVB1Protein V
W_NDVB1Protein W

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain

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PHOSP_SENDOPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDOProtein V
W_SENDOProtein W

3 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain

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VGP_EBOZMEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOZMPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOZMSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain

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LHDAG_HDVD3Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVD3Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV) reference strain

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LHDAG_HDVP1Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVP1Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain

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PHOSP_PI2HTPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI2HTNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus) reference strain

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PHOSP_MEASCPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASCNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain

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PHOSP_MUMPMPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPMNon-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain

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PHOSP_PIV5Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PIV5Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Simian virus 41 (SV41) reference strain

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PHOSP_SV41Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SV41Non-structural protein V

3 entries

Nipah virus

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PHOSP_NIPAVPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_NIPAVNon-structural protein V
W_NIPAVProtein W

3 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOREEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOREPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBORESuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

3 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBORREnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBORRPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBORRSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDFPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDFProtein V
W_SENDFProtein W

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDAPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDAProtein V
W_SENDAProtein W

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDHPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDHProtein V
W_SENDHProtein W

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ))

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PHOSP_SENDZPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDZProtein V
W_SENDZProtein W

3 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOSUEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOSUPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOSUSuper small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

3 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOZ5Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOZ5Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)
VSSGP_EBOZ5Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVAMLarge delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVAMSmall delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVITLarge delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVITSmall delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVM1Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVM1Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVM2Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVM2Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVS2Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVS2Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVL1Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVL1Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVNALarge delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVNASmall delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVU2Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVU2Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVWOLarge delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVWOSmall delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDV83Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDV83Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVS1Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVS1Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVTWLarge delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVTWSmall delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV2Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV2Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV3Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV3Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV1Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV1Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)

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PHOSP_PI2HPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI2HNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)

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PHOSP_PI4HAPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI4HANon-structural protein V

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)

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PHOSP_PI4HBPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI4HBNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASEPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASENon-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASAPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASANon-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASIPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASINon-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASYPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASYNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMPEPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPENon-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMPSPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPSNon-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMP1Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMP1Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)

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PHOSP_NDVU2Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_NDVU2Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Phocine distemper virus (PDV)

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PHOSP_PHODVPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PHODVNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBORSEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBORSPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Rinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)

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PHOSP_RINDKPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_RINDKNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Rinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)

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PHOSP_RINDRPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_RINDRNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOSBEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOSBPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOSMEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOSMPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Tai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)

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VGP_TAFVCEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_TAFVCPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV)

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PHOSP_TPMVPhosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_TPMVNon-structural protein V

2 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOECEnvelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOECPre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

2 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOG4Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)
VSGP_EBOG4Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

1 entry

Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3)


PHOSP_PI3BPhosphoprotein (Protein P)

1 entry

Canine distemper virus (strain Onderstepoort) (CDV)


PHOSP_CDVOPhosphoprotein (Protein P)

1 entry

Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain Wash/47885/57) (HPIV-3) (Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain NIH 47885))


PHOSP_PI3H4Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

1 entry

Sendai virus (strain 6/94) (SeV)


PHOSP_SEND6Phosphoprotein (Protein P)