RNA suppression of termination

Suppression of termination (also referred to as stop codon readthrough) is an alternate mechanism of translation to produce a protein with an extended C-terminus. It is used as a regulatory strategy by a large number of plant, animal and prokaryot viruses (see table below).
UAG amber and UGA opal codons are normally recognized by a release factor (eRF) instead of a tRNA, thereby stopping translation. Readthrough of these stop codons occurs when a tRNA partially recognizes UGA or UAG and allows translation to proceed further. This readthrough is induced either by a pseudoknot (MMTV) or by few nucleotides sequence after the stop. The readthrough signals of prokaryote, plant and mammal viruses are different and have different mechanisms which are still poorly understood. The efficiency of suppression of termination is globally poor: 5 to 30%.

The picture below describes MMTV suppression of termination.

Family Genus/TD> Virus RefSeq STOP codon Insertion Efficiency Position Reference
Leviviridae Allolevivirus Enterobacteria phage Qbeta NC_001890 UGA (opal) Trp 5% 1742
Carmotetraviridae Alphacarmotetravirus Providence virus NC_014126 UAG (amber) - - 2104
Luteoviridae Enamovirus Pea enation mosaic virus 1 NC_003629 UGA (opal) - - 4566
Luteovirus Barley yellow dwarf virus NC_004750 UAG (amber) - - 3458
Polerovirus Potato leafroll virus NC_001747 UAG (amber) - - 4317
Reoviridae Coltivirus Colorado tick fever virus NC_004180 UGA (opal) - - 1052
Retroviridae Gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus NC_001501 UAG (amber) Gln 4-10% 1974
Epsilonretrovirus Walleye dermal sarcoma virus NC_001867 UAG (amber) - - 2545
Togaviridae Alphavirus Sindbis virus NC_001547 UGA (opal) - 10% 7598
Tombusviridae Aureusvirus Pothos latent virus NC_000939 UAG (amber) - - 791
Avenavirus Oat chlorotic stunt virus NC_003633 UAG (amber) - - 684
Carmovirus Carnation mottle virus NC_001265 UAG (amber) - - 805
Machlomovirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus NC_003627 UAG (amber) - - 1451
UGA (opal) - - 3199
Alphanecrovirus Tobbaco necrosis virus A NC_001777 UAG (amber) - - 666
Panicovirus Panicium mosaic virus NC_002598 UAG (amber) - - 1304
Tombusvirus Tomato bushy stunt virus NC_001554 UAG (amber) - - 1054
Virgaviridae Furovirus Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus NC_001367 UGA (opal) - - 4032
NC_002042 UGA (opal) - - 862
Pecluvirus Peanut clump virus NC_003672 UGA (opal) - - 3567
Pomovirus Potato mop-top virus NC_003723 UGA (opal) - - 4024
NC_003724 UAG (amber) - - 842
Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus NC_002041 UGA (opal) Tyr, Gln, Leu 31% 3417
Tobravirus Tobacco rattle virus NC_003805 UGA (opal) Trp 5-25% 3764

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

78 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 75 complete proteome entries)

2 entries

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (isolate United States/Kansas/1987) (MCMV) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
P31_MCMVKUncharacterized protein p31
RDRP_MCMVKRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (111 kDa protein) (Protein p111)

1 entry

Barley yellow dwarf virus (isolate PAV) (BYDV) reference strain


MCAPS_BYDVPMinor capsid protein (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Carnation mottle virus (isolate China/Shanghai) (CarMV) reference strain


RDRP_CARMSProbable RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88)

1 entry

Chikungunya virus (strain S27-African prototype) (CHIKV) reference strain


POLN_CHIKSNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Colorado tick fever virus (strain USA/Florio N-7180) (CTFV) reference strain


VP9P_CTFVLNon structural protein VP9'

1 entry

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (strain watermelon SH) (CGMMV) reference strain


RDRP_CGMVSReplicase large subunit (EC 2.7.7.48) (186 kDa protein)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage MX1 (Bacteriophage MX1) reference strain


A1_BPMX1Minor capsid protein A1

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage SP (Bacteriophage SP) reference strain


A1_BPSPMinor capsid protein A1

1 entry

Moloney murine leukemia virus (isolate Shinnick) (MoMLV) reference strain

1 entry

Oat chlorotic stunt virus (isolate United Kingdom) (OCSV) reference strain


RDRP_OCSVURNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p84)

1 entry

Panicum mosaic virus (strain United States/Kansas 109S) (PMV) reference strain


RDRP_PMVKRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p112)

1 entry

Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (strain WSG) (PEMV-1) reference strain


RDRP_PEMVWProtein P1-P2

1 entry

Pepper mild mottle virus (strain Spain) (PMMV-S) reference strain


RDRP_PMMVSReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Potato leafroll virus (strain Potato/Scotland/strain 1/1984) (PLrV) reference strain


MCAPS_PLRV1Minor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Pothos latent virus (isolate Pigeonpea/India) (PoLV) reference strain


RDRP_POLVPRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p84)

1 entry

Semliki forest virus (SFV) reference strain


POLN_SFVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Sindbis virus (SINV) reference strain


POLN_SINDVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) (TMV strain cowpea) reference strain


RDRP_SHMVReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain OM) (TMV) reference strain


RDRP_TMVOMReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain vulgare) (TMV) (Tobacco mosaic virus (strain U1)) reference strain


RDRP_TMVReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco necrosis virus (strain A) (TNV-A) reference strain


RDRP_TNVARNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p82)

1 entry

Tomato bushy stunt virus (strain Cherry) (TBSV) reference strain


RDRP_TBSVCRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92)

1 entry

Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) reference strain


RDRP_TCVRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88)

1 entry

Turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV) reference strain


RDRP_TVCVReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Turnip yellows virus (isolate FL-1) (TuYV) (BWYV-FL1) reference strain


MCAPS_TYYVFMinor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) reference strain


POL_WDSVGag-Pol polyprotein

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP62) (XMRV) reference strain


POL_XMRV6Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol)

1 entry

AKV murine leukemia virus (AKR (endogenous) murine leukemia virus)


POL_MLVAVPol polyprotein

1 entry

Aura virus (AURAV)


POLN_AURAVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Baboon endogenous virus (strain M7)


POL_BAEVMPol polyprotein

1 entry

Barmah forest virus (BFV)


POLN_BFVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)


RDRP_CARMVRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88)

1 entry

Chikungunya virus (strain 37997) (CHIKV)


POLN_CHIK3Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV)


RDRP_CNVRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92)

1 entry

Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV)


RDRP_CRVRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92)

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain Florida 91-469) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)


POLN_EEEVFNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain PE-0.0155) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)


POLN_EEEV1Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain PE-3.0815) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)


POLN_EEEV8Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)


POL_MLVF5Pol polyprotein

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)


POL_MLVFFPol polyprotein

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)


POL_MLVFPPol polyprotein

1 entry

Getah virus (GETV)


POLN_GETVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV)


POL_GALVPol polyprotein

1 entry

Koala retrovirus (KoRV)


POL_KORVPro-Pol polyprotein (Pr125Pol)

1 entry

Mayaro virus (strain Brazil) (MAYV)


POLN_MAYABNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain Gulu) (ONNV)


POLN_ONNVGNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain Igbo Ora) (ONNV) (Igbo Ora virus)


POLN_ONNVINon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain SG650) (ONNV)


POLN_ONNVSNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Odontoglossum ringspot virus (isolate Korean Cy) (ORSV-Cy)


RDRP_ORSVCReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Odontoglossum ringspot virus (isolate Singapore 1) (ORSV)


RDRP_ORSVSReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Pepper mild mottle virus (strain Japan) (PMMV-J)


RDRP_PMMVJReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Potato leafroll virus (strain Potato/Netherlands/Wageningen/1989) (PLrV)


MCAPS_PLRVWMinor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Radiation murine leukemia virus


POL_MLVRDPol polyprotein

1 entry

Ross river virus (strain NB5092) (RRV)


POLN_RRVNNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Sagiyama virus (SAGV)


POLN_SAGVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV)


POLN_SPDVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Sindbis virus subtype Ockelbo (strain Edsbyn 82-5) (OCKV) (Ockelbo virus)


POLN_SINDONon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Sleeping disease virus (SDV)


POLN_SLDVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) (TMV strain U2)


RDRP_TMGMVReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain B935A) (TMV)


RDRP_TMVBReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain Korean NC 82) (TMV)


RDRP_TMVKRReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain Rakkyo) (TMV-R)


RDRP_TMVRAReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tobacco necrosis virus (strain D) (TNV-D)


RDRP_TNVDRNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p82)

1 entry

Tobamovirus Ob


RDRP_TMOBReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain Kazakh K1) (ToMV) (TMV strain K1)


RDRP_TOMK1Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain Kazakh K2) (ToMV) (TMV strain K2)


RDRP_TOMK2Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain L) (ToMV) (TMV strain tomato)


RDRP_TOMLReplicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain S-1) (ToMV)


RDRP_TOMS1Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain 3880) (VEEV)


POLN_EEVV3Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain CPA201) (VEEV)


POLN_EEVVCNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain Mena II) (VEEV)


POLN_EEVVMNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain P676) (VEEV)


POLN_EEVVPNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain Trinidad donkey) (VEEV)


POLN_EEVVTNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV)


POLN_WEEVNon-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234)

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP35) (XMRV)


POL_XMRV3Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol)

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP42) (XMRV)


POL_XMRV4Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol)

1 entry

Youcai mosaic virus (YoMV) (Oilseed rape mosaic virus)


RDRP_YOMVReplicase large subunit (EC 2.7.7.48) (182 kDa protein)