Inhibition of host adaptive immune response by virus

Unlike innate immune response, which remain essentially unchanged upon exposure to a recurrent challenge with the same stimulus, adaptive immune cells possess the ability to learn and remember. Adaptive immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to distinguish between the body’s own cells and unwanted invaders. Healthy cells present peptides from normal cellular proteins on their cell surface, and lymphocytes will not be activated in response to them. When a cell is infected by viruses or other pathogens, the foreign peptides generated are recognized by lymphocytes that are activated and destroy the infected cell.

TAT EBNA1 K3 K5 us11 us2 mK3 m06 nef U21 ORF66 ICP47 BLN2fa US6 us3 e3-k19

Viruses employ different strategies to inhibit presentation of viral-derived peptides. One way consists of the modulation of proteasome activity which generate the peptides from full-length proteins. Some viruses also directly interact with and inhibit the machinery responsible for the generation and transport of loaded MHC molecules. For instance, TAP and tapasin are common targets of viral proteins.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

49 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

Only complete proteome entries are shown (view all 86 entries)

Protein A35

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A35_VACCWVaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain
A35_VACCCVaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV)

Protein BNLF2a

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BNL2A_EBVA8Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVB9Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVGEpstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

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E3GL_ADE02Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain
E3GL_ADE05Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5)

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

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EBNA1_EBVA8Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVB9Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVGEpstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein)

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ENV_MLVF5Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFFFriend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFPFriend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)

Glycoprotein N (gN)

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GN_EHV1BEquine herpesvirus 1 (strain Ab4p) (EHV-1) (Equine abortion virus)
GN_EHV1VEquine herpesvirus 1 (strain V592) (EHV-1) (Equine abortion virus)

ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 protein) (Vmw12)

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ICP47_HHV11Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
ICP47_HHV2HHuman herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 6.3.2.-) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP)

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LAP_MYXVLMyxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain
LAP_RFVKARabbit fibroma virus (strain Kasza) (RFV) (Shope fibroma virus (strain Kasza)) reference strain
LAP_YMTV5Yaba monkey tumor virus (strain VR587) (YMTV) reference strain

Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)

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NEF_HV1H2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1A2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B1Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1JRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MNHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1RHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Y2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B9Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV192Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ETHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ELHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV193Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1VIHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV190Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YFHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ANHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MVHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1)

Accessory protein p12I

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P12I_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
P12I_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 homolog (Protein kinase ORF66) (EC 2.7.11.1)


US03_VZVDVaricella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain

Unique short US6 glycoprotein

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US06_HCMVMHuman cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
US06_HCMVAHuman cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US6 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF6) (gpUS6)

Membrane glycoprotein US11

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US11_HCMVMHuman cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
US11_HCMVAHuman cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US11 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF1) (gpUS11)

Probable protein E5


VE5_HPV16Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

Viral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)


VIRF3_HHV8PHuman herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... reference strain