Rotavirus maturation schemes

Non enveloped, icosahedral virion with a double capsid structure (except for cypoviruses and dinovernaviruses which have only the equivalent of the inner capsid). The outer capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2* icosahedral symmetry.



Segmented linear dsRNA genome. Contains 10 to 12 segments coding for 10 to 14 proteins. Segments size range from 0.2 to 3.0 kb. Genome total size range from 18.2 to 30.5 kb.


The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. Viral polymerase synthesizes mRNA from each of the dsRNA segments. These mRNAs are translocated to the cell cytoplasm where they are translated.
Further proteins are produced by leaky scanning and protein processing.



  1. Attachement to host receptors probably mediates endocytosis of virus into host cell.
  2. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm.
  3. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
  4. Transcription from each of the dsRNA segments produces mRNA templates for translation.
  5. Viral proteins and genomic RNAs aggregates in cytoplasmic viral factories.
  6. (+)RNAs are encapsidated in a sub-viral particle, in which they are transcribed to give RNA (-) molecules with which they become base-paired to produce dsRNA genomes.
  7. The capsid is assembled on the sub-viral particle.
  8. Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Mammalian reovirus mediates host cell apoptosis through the activation of death receptors, including TRAIL, TNFR and Fas . Activation of these death receptors induces the activation downstream caspases (caspase-3)

Avian orthoreovirus induces host cell apoptosis probably through upregulation of p53 (activation of DNA-damage signalling) by viral sigmaC protein .

Autophagy modulation

Avian orthoreovirus also seems to induces autophagy .

Innate immune response inhibition

Avian orthoreovirus σA protein binds to dsRNA and inhibits the PRK-mediated antiviral response of the host cell .
Mammalian orthoreoreovirus σ3 protein binds to dsRNA and inhibits the PRK-mediated antiviral response of the host cell .
Mammalian orthoreovirus &mu2; protein from strain Lang (T1L) inhibits IFN-beta-induced reporter gene expression .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

142 entries grouped by strain

13 entries

Colorado tick fever virus (strain USA/Florio N-7180) (CTFV) reference strain

VP12_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP12
RDRP_CTFVL RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC
VP10_CTFVL Microtubule-associated protein VP10
VP2_CTFVL Putative RNA methyltransferase VP2 (EC 2.1.1.-)
VP9P_CTFVL Non structural protein VP9'
VP9_CTFVL Structural protein VP9
VP11_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP11
VP8_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP6_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP6
VP5_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP4_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP4
VP3_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP3

12 entries

Aquareovirus C (isolate Golden shiner/USA/GSRV/1977) (AQRV-C) reference strain

VP4_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP4
CAPSD_AQRVC Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
VNS2_AQRVC Non-structural protein 2 (NS2)
VP7_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP7
VP6_AQRVC Clamp protein VP6
VP5_AQRVC Microtubule-associated protein VP5
VNS1_AQRVC Non-structural protein 1 (NS1)
RDRP_AQRVC RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP1_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
VNS3_AQRVC Non-structural protein 3 (NS3)
VNS4_AQRVC Non-structural protein 4 (NS4)
VNS5_AQRVC Non-structural protein 5 (NS5)

12 entries

Aquareovirus G (isolate American grass carp/USA/PB01-155/-) (AQRV-G) reference strain

CAPSD_AQRVG Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
VP4_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP4
VP1_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
RDRP_AQRVG RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VNS1_AQRVG Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (NS73)
VP5_AQRVG Microtubule-associated protein VP5
VNS5_AQRVG Non-structural protein 5 (NS5) (NS16)
VP6_AQRVG Clamp protein VP6
VNS2_AQRVG Non-structural protein 2 (NS2)
VP7_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP7
VNS4_AQRVG Non-structural protein 4 (NS4) (NS31)
VNS3_AQRVG Non-structural 3 (NS3) (NS26)

12 entries

Fiji disease virus (isolate Sugarcane) (FDV) reference strain

RDRP_FDVS RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC
VP72_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP7-2
VP71_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP7-1
VP10_FDVS Putative outer capsid protein p10
VP8_FDVS Microtubule-associated protein VP8
VP5_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP3_FDVS Putative structural protein VP3
VP6_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP6
VP92_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP9-2
VP91_FDVS Non-structural protein P9-1
VP4_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP4
CAPSD_FDVS Putative major capsid protein

11 entries

Cryphonectria parasitica mycoreovirus 1 (strain 9B21) (CpMYRV-1) reference strain

VP3_MYRV9 Outer capsid protein VP3 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
VP11_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP11
VP10_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP10
VP9_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP9
VP8_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP6_MYRV9 Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP5_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP4_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP4
VP2_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP2
RDRP_MYRV9 RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC

11 entries

Reovirus type 1 (strain Lang) (T1L) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 1) reference strain

MU1_REOVL Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
SIGM1_REOVL Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
SIGM3_REOVL Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
RDRP_REOVL RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
MU2_REOVL Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)
LMBD2_REOVL Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
MUNS_REOVL Protein mu-NS (MuNS)
LMBD1_REOVL Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
SIG1S_REOVL Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
SIGNS_REOVL Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
SIGM2_REOVL Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)

11 entries

Rice ragged stunt virus (isolate Thailand) (RRSV) reference strain

VP8_RRSVT Structural protein precursor VP8 [Cleaved into: Putative 26 kDa protease; Putative clamp protein ...
VP2_RRSVT Outer capsid protein VP2 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
CAPSD_RRSVT Major inner capsid protein VP3 (Major core capsid protein VP3)
MVP_RRSVT Movement and RNA silencing protein VP6
RDRP_RRSVT RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC
VP9_RRSVT Structural protein VP9
VP10_RRSVT Non-structural protein VP10
VP7_RRSVT Microtubule-associated protein VP7
VP1_RRSVT Structural protein VP1
VP4B_RRSVT Uncharacterized protein VP4b
VP5_RRSVT Putative minor structural protein VP5

10 entries

Lymantria dispar cypovirus 1 (isolate Rao) (LdCPV-1) reference strain

VP6_LDCPR Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP4_LDCPR Outer capsid protein VP4 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
RDRP_LDCPR RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
CAPSD_LDCPR Major capsid protein VP1
PYHD_LDCPR Polyhedrin
NS5_LDCPR Non-structural protein 5 (NS5)
NS3_LDCPR Non-structural protein 3 (NS3)
VP5_LDCPR Putative structural protein VP5
NS1_LDCPR Non-structural protein 1 (NS1)
VP3_LDCPR Putative structural protein VP3

9 entries

Aedes pseudoscutellaris reovirus (isolate France) (ApRV) reference strain

VP6_APRVF Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP5_APRVF Outer capsid protein VP5 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
CAPSD_APRVF Putative major capsid protein VP3
RDRP_APRVF RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP9_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP9
VP8_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP4_APRVF Putative non-structural protein 4 (NS4)
VP1_APRVF Putative structural protein VP1

11 entries

Reovirus type 2 (strain D5/Jones) (T2J) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 2)

MU1_REOVJ Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
SIGM1_REOVJ Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
RDRP_REOVJ RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
SIGM3_REOVJ Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
LMBD2_REOVJ Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
LMBD1_REOVJ Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
SIGNS_REOVJ Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
SIG1S_REOVJ Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
SIGM2_REOVJ Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)
MU2_REOVJ Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)
MUNS_REOVJ Protein mu-NS (MuNS)

11 entries

Reovirus type 3 (strain Dearing) (T3D) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 3)

MU1_REOVD Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
LMBD2_REOVD Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
SIGM3_REOVD Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
SIGM1_REOVD Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
LMBD1_REOVD Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
RDRP_REOVD RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
SIGM2_REOVD Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)
SIGNS_REOVD Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
SIG1S_REOVD Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
MU2_REOVD Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)
MUNS_REOVD Protein mu-NS (MuNS)

7 entries

Diadromus pulchellus idnoreovirus 1 (DpIRV-1)

S3_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S3
S9_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S9
S3BIS_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S3bis
S10_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S10
S8_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S8
S7_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S7
S2_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S2

3 entries

Aquareovirus A (isolate Chum salmon/Japan/CSRV/1981) (AQRV-A)

CAPSD_AQRVA Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
RDRP_AQRVA RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP1_AQRVA Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...

2 entries

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV)

PYHD_CPVBM Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)
CAPSD_CPVBM Capsid protein VP1

2 entries

Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV)

VP61_MRDV Probable non-structural 41.0 kDa protein
VP62_MRDV Probable non-structural 36.3 kDa protein

1 entry

Avian reovirus (strain S1133) (ARV)

SIGC_ARVS1 Sigma-C capsid protein (Sigma-3 protein)

1 entry

Choristoneura fumiferana cypovirus (CfCPV) (Choristoneura fumiferana cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVCS Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Euxoa scandens cypovirus (EsCPV) (Euxoa scandens cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVES Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Orgyia pseudotsugata cypovirus (OpCPV) (Orgyia pseudotsugata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVOP Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)

VP10_RBSDV Protein S10