Spinareoviridae (taxid:2946187)



Rotavirus maturation schemes

Non enveloped, icosahedral virion with a double capsid structure (except for cypoviruses and dinovernaviruses which have only the equivalent of the inner capsid). The outer capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2* icosahedral symmetry.



Segmented linear dsRNA genome. Contains 10 to 12 segments coding for 10 to 14 proteins. Segments size range from 0.2 to 3.0 kb. Genome total size range from 18.2 to 30.5 kb.


The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. Viral polymerase synthesizes mRNA from each of the dsRNA segments. These mRNAs are translocated to the cell cytoplasm where they are translated.
Further proteins are produced by leaky scanning and protein processing.




  1. Attachement to host receptors probably mediates endocytosis of virus into host cell.
  2. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm.
  3. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
  4. Transcription from each of the dsRNA segments produces mRNA templates for translation.
  5. Viral proteins and genomic RNAs aggregates in cytoplasmic viral factories.
  6. (+)RNAs are encapsidated in a sub-viral particle, in which they are transcribed to give RNA (-) molecules with which they become base-paired to produce dsRNA genomes.
  7. The capsid is assembled on the sub-viral particle.
  8. Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Mammalian reovirus mediates host cell apoptosis through the activation of death receptors, including TRAIL, TNFR and Fas . Activation of these death receptors induces the activation downstream caspases (caspase-3)

Avian orthoreovirus induces host cell apoptosis probably through upregulation of p53 (activation of DNA-damage signalling) by viral sigmaC protein .

Autophagy modulation

Avian orthoreovirus also seems to induces autophagy .

Innate immune response inhibition

Avian orthoreovirus σA protein binds to dsRNA and inhibits the PRK-mediated antiviral response of the host cell .
Mammalian orthoreoreovirus σ3 protein binds to dsRNA and inhibits the PRK-mediated antiviral response of the host cell .
Mammalian orthoreovirus &mu2; protein from strain Lang (T1L) inhibits IFN-beta-induced reporter gene expression .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

142 entries grouped by strain

13 entries

Colorado tick fever virus (strain USA/Florio N-7180) (CTFV) reference strain

VP12_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP12
RDRP_CTFVL RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC
VP10_CTFVL Microtubule-associated protein VP10
VP2_CTFVL Putative RNA methyltransferase VP2 (EC 2.1.1.-)
VP9P_CTFVL Non structural protein VP9'
VP9_CTFVL Structural protein VP9
VP11_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP11
VP8_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP6_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP6
VP5_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP4_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP4
VP3_CTFVL Uncharacterized protein VP3

12 entries

Aquareovirus C (isolate Golden shiner/USA/GSRV/1977) (AQRV-C) reference strain

VP4_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP4
CAPSD_AQRVC Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
VNS2_AQRVC Non-structural protein 2 (NS2)
VP7_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP7
VP6_AQRVC Clamp protein VP6
VP5_AQRVC Microtubule-associated protein VP5
VNS1_AQRVC Non-structural protein 1 (NS1)
RDRP_AQRVC RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP1_AQRVC Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
VNS3_AQRVC Non-structural protein 3 (NS3)
VNS4_AQRVC Non-structural protein 4 (NS4)
VNS5_AQRVC Non-structural protein 5 (NS5)

12 entries

Aquareovirus G (isolate American grass carp/USA/PB01-155/-) (AQRV-G) reference strain

CAPSD_AQRVG Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
VP4_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP4
VP1_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
RDRP_AQRVG RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VNS1_AQRVG Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (NS73)
VP5_AQRVG Microtubule-associated protein VP5
VNS5_AQRVG Non-structural protein 5 (NS5) (NS16)
VP6_AQRVG Clamp protein VP6
VNS2_AQRVG Non-structural protein 2 (NS2)
VP7_AQRVG Outer capsid protein VP7
VNS4_AQRVG Non-structural protein 4 (NS4) (NS31)
VNS3_AQRVG Non-structural 3 (NS3) (NS26)

12 entries

Fiji disease virus (isolate Sugarcane) (FDV) reference strain

RDRP_FDVS RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC
VP72_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP7-2
VP71_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP7-1
VP10_FDVS Putative outer capsid protein p10
VP8_FDVS Microtubule-associated protein VP8
VP5_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP3_FDVS Putative structural protein VP3
VP6_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP6
VP92_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP9-2
VP91_FDVS Non-structural protein P9-1
VP4_FDVS Uncharacterized protein VP4
CAPSD_FDVS Putative major capsid protein

11 entries

Cryphonectria parasitica mycoreovirus 1 (strain 9B21) (CpMYRV-1) reference strain

VP3_MYRV9 Outer capsid protein VP3 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
VP11_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP11
VP10_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP10
VP9_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP9
VP8_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP6_MYRV9 Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP5_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP5
VP4_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP4
VP2_MYRV9 Uncharacterized protein VP2
RDRP_MYRV9 RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC

11 entries

Reovirus type 1 (strain Lang) (T1L) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 1) reference strain

MU1_REOVL Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
MUNS_REOVL Protein mu-NS (MuNS)
SIGM1_REOVL Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
SIGM3_REOVL Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
SIGNS_REOVL Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
RDRP_REOVL RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
MU2_REOVL Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)
LMBD2_REOVL Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
LMBD1_REOVL Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
SIG1S_REOVL Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
SIGM2_REOVL Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)

11 entries

Rice ragged stunt virus (isolate Thailand) (RRSV) reference strain

VP8_RRSVT Structural protein precursor VP8 [Cleaved into: Putative 26 kDa protease; Putative clamp protein ...
VP2_RRSVT Outer capsid protein VP2 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
CAPSD_RRSVT Major inner capsid protein VP3 (Major core capsid protein VP3)
MVP_RRSVT Movement and RNA silencing protein VP6
RDRP_RRSVT RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC
VP9_RRSVT Structural protein VP9
VP10_RRSVT Non-structural protein VP10
VP7_RRSVT Microtubule-associated protein VP7
VP1_RRSVT Structural protein VP1
VP4B_RRSVT Uncharacterized protein VP4b
VP5_RRSVT Putative minor structural protein VP5

10 entries

Lymantria dispar cypovirus 1 (isolate Rao) (LdCPV-1) reference strain

VP6_LDCPR Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP4_LDCPR Outer capsid protein VP4 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
RDRP_LDCPR RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
CAPSD_LDCPR Major capsid protein VP1
PYHD_LDCPR Polyhedrin
NS5_LDCPR Non-structural protein 5 (NS5)
NS3_LDCPR Non-structural protein 3 (NS3)
VP5_LDCPR Putative structural protein VP5
NS1_LDCPR Non-structural protein 1 (NS1)
VP3_LDCPR Putative structural protein VP3

9 entries

Aedes pseudoscutellaris reovirus (isolate France) (ApRV) reference strain

VP6_APRVF Microtubule-associated protein VP6
VP5_APRVF Outer capsid protein VP5 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...
CAPSD_APRVF Putative major capsid protein VP3
RDRP_APRVF RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP9_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP9
VP8_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP8
VP7_APRVF Uncharacterized protein VP7
VP4_APRVF Putative non-structural protein 4 (NS4)
VP1_APRVF Putative structural protein VP1

11 entries

Reovirus type 2 (strain D5/Jones) (T2J) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 2)

MU1_REOVJ Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
SIGM1_REOVJ Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
SIGNS_REOVJ Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
RDRP_REOVJ RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
SIGM3_REOVJ Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
LMBD2_REOVJ Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
MUNS_REOVJ Protein mu-NS (MuNS)
LMBD1_REOVJ Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
SIG1S_REOVJ Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
SIGM2_REOVJ Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)
MU2_REOVJ Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)

11 entries

Reovirus type 3 (strain Dearing) (T3D) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 3)

MU1_REOVD Outer capsid protein mu-1 (Mu1) [Cleaved into: Outer capsid protein mu-1N; Outer capsid protein ...
LMBD2_REOVD Outer capsid protein lambda-2 (Lambda2) (Lambda2(Cap)) [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC ...
SIGM3_REOVD Outer capsid protein sigma-3 (Sigma3)
SIGM1_REOVD Outer capsid protein sigma-1 (Sigma1) (Cell attachment protein) (Hemagglutinin)
MUNS_REOVD Protein mu-NS (MuNS)
LMBD1_REOVD Inner capsid protein lambda-1 (Lambda1) (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase lambda-1) ...
SIGNS_REOVD Protein sigma-NS (SigmaNS)
RDRP_REOVD RNA-directed RNA polymerase lambda-3 (Lambda3) (EC (Lambda3(Pol))
SIGM2_REOVD Inner capsid protein sigma-2 (Sigma2)
SIG1S_REOVD Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)
MU2_REOVD Microtubule-associated protein mu-2 (Mu2)

7 entries

Diadromus pulchellus idnoreovirus 1 (DpIRV-1)

S3_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S3
S9_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S9
S3BIS_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S3bis
S10_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S10
S8_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S8
S7_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S7
S2_DPIRV Uncharacterized protein S2

3 entries

Aquareovirus A (isolate Chum salmon/Japan/CSRV/1981) (AQRV-A)

CAPSD_AQRVA Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3)
RDRP_AQRVA RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC
VP1_AQRVA Outer capsid protein VP1 [Includes: mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC; mRNA ...

2 entries

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV)

PYHD_CPVBM Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)
CAPSD_CPVBM Capsid protein VP1

2 entries

Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV)

VP61_MRDV Probable non-structural 41.0 kDa protein
VP62_MRDV Probable non-structural 36.3 kDa protein

1 entry

Avian reovirus (strain S1133) (ARV)

SIGC_ARVS1 Sigma-C capsid protein (Sigma-3 protein)

1 entry

Choristoneura fumiferana cypovirus (CfCPV) (Choristoneura fumiferana cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVCS Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Euxoa scandens cypovirus (EsCPV) (Euxoa scandens cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVES Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Orgyia pseudotsugata cypovirus (OpCPV) (Orgyia pseudotsugata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus)

PYHD_CPVOP Polyhedrin (C-polyhedrin)

1 entry

Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)

VP10_RBSDV Protein S10
These structures were created with the help of Colabfold by Jason Nomburg, Nathan Price and Jennifer Doudna (ModelArchive).

Aquareovirus G (isolate American grass carp/USA/PB01-155/-) taxid:648234

Protein ModelArchive
Clamp protein VP6 ma-jd-viral-16780
Major inner capsid protein VP3 (EC (ATP-dependent DNA helicase VP3) ma-jd-viral-12642
Microtubule-associated protein VP5 ma-jd-viral-09896
Non-structural 3 (NS3) (NS26) ma-jd-viral-06602
Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (NS73) ma-jd-viral-55301
Non-structural protein 2 (NS2) ma-jd-viral-04468
Non-structural protein 4 (NS4) (NS31) ma-jd-viral-46165
Non-structural protein 5 (NS5) (NS16) ma-jd-viral-35938
Outer capsid protein VP1 ma-jd-viral-31468
Outer capsid protein VP4 ma-jd-viral-29642
Outer capsid protein VP7 ma-jd-viral-14813
RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP2 (EC ma-jd-viral-19853

Baboon orthoreovirus taxid:75888

Protein ModelArchive
Major inner capsid protein sigma 1 ma-jd-viral-16784
Major nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-41549
Major outer capsid protein sigma 2 ma-jd-viral-14815
Minor core protein ma-jd-viral-09891
Nonstructural protein sigma NS ma-jd-viral-04460
Outer shell protein ma-jd-viral-29634

Broome reovirus taxid:667093

Protein ModelArchive
Core protein ma-jd-viral-09890
Core protein (Major inner capsid protein sigma 1) ma-jd-viral-16783
Major outer capsid protein ma-jd-viral-14816
Major outer capsid protein ma-jd-viral-29639
Mu-class non-structural protein ma-jd-viral-41551
Sigma-class non-structural protein ma-jd-viral-04462
Small non-structural protein p13 ma-jd-viral-50498
Small non-structural protein p16 ma-jd-viral-53519

Cangyuan orthoreovirus taxid:1388882

Protein ModelArchive
Guanylytransferase ma-jd-viral-31465
Inner capsid protein ma-jd-viral-12645
Major inner capsid protein ma-jd-viral-16788
Major outer capsid ma-jd-viral-14814
Major outer capsid ma-jd-viral-29640
Minor inner capsid ma-jd-viral-09893
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-04465
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-41554
RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC ma-jd-viral-19859
Sigma C capsid protein ma-jd-viral-09461

Cryphonectria parasitica mycoreovirus 1 (strain 9B21) taxid:230407

Protein ModelArchive
Microtubule-associated protein VP6 ma-jd-viral-65378
Outer capsid protein VP3 ma-jd-viral-53230
RNA-directed RNA polymerase VP1 (EC ma-jd-viral-56378
Uncharacterized protein VP10 ma-jd-viral-55213
Uncharacterized protein VP11 ma-jd-viral-37256
Uncharacterized protein VP2 ma-jd-viral-51055
Uncharacterized protein VP4 ma-jd-viral-61780
Uncharacterized protein VP5 ma-jd-viral-62307
Uncharacterized protein VP7 ma-jd-viral-60949
Uncharacterized protein VP8 ma-jd-viral-47243
Uncharacterized protein VP9 ma-jd-viral-58281

Etheostoma fonticola aquareovirus taxid:1862978

Protein ModelArchive
Putative NTPase ma-jd-viral-09898
Putative NTPase/RNA helicase ma-jd-viral-12649
Putative core protein ma-jd-viral-16781
Putative guanylyl/methyl transferase ma-jd-viral-31467
Putative major outer capsid protein ma-jd-viral-14820
Putative non-structural protein ma-jd-viral-55300
Putative non-structural protein 23 ma-jd-viral-30008
Putative non-structural protein 25 ma-jd-viral-06604
Putative non-structural protein 32 ma-jd-viral-46162
Putative non-structural protein 38 ma-jd-viral-04466
Putative outer capsid protein ma-jd-viral-29644
RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC ma-jd-viral-19855

Fako virus taxid:1567404

Protein ModelArchive
Clamp protein ma-jd-viral-59588
Major capsid protein ma-jd-viral-60584
Non-structural protein (Nonstructural protein) ma-jd-viral-50194
Non-structural protein (Nonstructural protein) ma-jd-viral-46205
Non-structural protein (Nonstructural protein) ma-jd-viral-65690
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-60567
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ma-jd-viral-19467
Structural protein ma-jd-viral-42517
Turret protein ma-jd-viral-41719

Fiji disease virus (isolate Sugarcane) taxid:648172

Protein ModelArchive
Uncharacterized protein VP7-1 ma-jd-viral-45689
Uncharacterized protein VP7-2 ma-jd-viral-29208

Heliothis armigera cypovirus 5 taxid:332585

Protein ModelArchive
Non-structural protein ma-jd-viral-29661
Polyhedrin ma-jd-viral-48688
Structural protein ma-jd-viral-46392
p7 ma-jd-viral-08049

Lymantria dispar cypovirus 14 taxid:165429

Protein ModelArchive
P26 ma-jd-viral-67701
Polyhedrin ma-jd-viral-57524
Protein 9 ma-jd-viral-47101
Putative major core protein ma-jd-viral-35461
RNA dependent RNA polymerase ma-jd-viral-19468
Uncharacterized protein ma-jd-viral-08048
Uncharacterized protein ma-jd-viral-53128
Uncharacterized protein ma-jd-viral-67446
Uncharacterized protein ma-jd-viral-59404
VP2 ma-jd-viral-34279
VP3 ma-jd-viral-41717

Mal de Rio Cuarto virus taxid:185954

Protein ModelArchive
Major outer capsid protein ma-jd-viral-34058
ORF1 ma-jd-viral-45688
ORF2 ma-jd-viral-29207
P4 protein ma-jd-viral-52687
P6 ma-jd-viral-66761
PS5 ma-jd-viral-48610
Possible major core protein ma-jd-viral-47346
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ma-jd-viral-45472

Mammalian orthoreovirus 3 taxid:538123

Protein ModelArchive
Mu-1 protein ma-jd-viral-29635
Mu-2 protein ma-jd-viral-09888
Mu-NS protein ma-jd-viral-41550
Sigma-1 protein ma-jd-viral-29164
Sigma-2 protein ma-jd-viral-16785
Sigma-3 protein ma-jd-viral-57645
Sigma-NS protein ma-jd-viral-04461

Reptilian orthoreovirus taxid:226613

Protein ModelArchive
Lambda A ma-jd-viral-12646
Lambda C ma-jd-viral-31464
MuA ma-jd-viral-09889
MuNS ma-jd-viral-41548
RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC ma-jd-viral-19854
Sigma C ma-jd-viral-09460
SigmaA ma-jd-viral-16787
p14 ma-jd-viral-31771

Rice black streaked dwarf virus taxid:10990

Protein ModelArchive
Coat protein ma-jd-viral-34059
Minor core structural protein ma-jd-viral-30209
P7-2 protein ma-jd-viral-29210
P9-1 protein ma-jd-viral-48718
P9-2 protein ma-jd-viral-57545
RNA-directed RNA polymerase ma-jd-viral-45471
Uncharacterized protein ma-jd-viral-59453
p2 protein ma-jd-viral-47345
p3 ma-jd-viral-62743
p4 protein ma-jd-viral-52686
p5 protein ma-jd-viral-48608
p6 protein ma-jd-viral-66760
p7-1 (Putative movement protein p7a) (Tubular structural protein) ma-jd-viral-45686

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 taxid:1840528

Protein ModelArchive
RdRp ma-jd-viral-56377
p10 ma-jd-viral-38566
p11 ma-jd-viral-43549
p12 ma-jd-viral-58282
p2 ma-jd-viral-51056
p3 ma-jd-viral-53231
p4 ma-jd-viral-57599
p5 ma-jd-viral-62269
p6 ma-jd-viral-65377
p7 ma-jd-viral-64409
p8 ma-jd-viral-63757
p9 ma-jd-viral-32948

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus taxid:519497

Protein ModelArchive
Nonstructural protein 9-1 ma-jd-viral-48716
Nonstructural protein 9-2 ma-jd-viral-57544
p10 protein ma-jd-viral-34060