Dependoparvovirus (taxid:10803)

Dependoparvovirus (formerly named dependovirus) is a genus of ssDNA satellite viruses in the family Parvoviridae that infect many vertebrates including humans. Human dependoparvovirus infections (AAVs) are asymptomatic.

Satellite virus: infectious only if host cell is co-infected with Adenovirus or Herpesvirus



Non-enveloped, round, T=1 icosahedral symmetry, 18-26 nm in diameter. The capsid consists of 60 copies of CP protein.



Linear, ssDNA genome of about 4.7kb in size. Equal amount of positive and negative strands are encapsidated, although the percentage of particles encapsidating the positive strand can be lower depending on the host cell. ORFs for both the structural and non-structural proteins are located on the same DNA strand.
The genome is replicated through rolling-hairpin mechanism. All dependoviruses except duck parvovirus and goose parvovirus depend on helper adenovirus or herpesvirus to replicate efficiently.


Host proteins transcribe the genomes into mRNAs. Transcription is regulated by the three promoters P5, P19 and P40: P5 transcripts are expressed first, followed by those from P19, then those from P40. Alternative splicing allows expression of three different mRNAs for each promoter. mRNA9 is translated into VP2, or VP3 by leaky scanning.




  1. Attachement to host receptors initiates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virion into the host cell.
  2. The virion penetrates into the cytoplasm via permeabilization of host endosomal membrane.
  3. Microtubular transport of the virion toward the nucleus.
  4. The viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  5. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA by cellular proteins. Occasionally, the viral genome can be integrated in host chromosome
  6. dsDNA transcription gives rise to viral mRNAs when host cell enters S phase and translated to produce viral proteins.
  7. Replication occurs through rolling-hairpin mechanism.
  8. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated to form new virions that are released by cell lysis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

AAV induces apoptosis and caspases activation in p53-deficient cells .
When coinfecting with adenovirus, AAV induces apoptosis by activating the DNA damage response. This is probably linked to the presence of a specific sequence in the viral genome. .

Cell-cycle modulation

AAV induces G2/M checkpoint arrest .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to website)

6 entries grouped by protein

1 entry

Assembly activating protein AAP

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Capsid protein VP1

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep40 (EC

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep52

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep68 (EC

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep78

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain
These structures were created with the help of Colabfold by Jason Nomburg, Nathan Price and Jennifer Doudna (ModelArchive).

Adeno-associated virus 2 taxid:10804

Protein ModelArchive
X protein ma-jd-viral-50472

Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) taxid:648242

Protein ModelArchive
Assembly activating protein AAP ma-jd-viral-47456
Capsid protein VP1 ma-jd-viral-07282
Capsid protein VP1 ma-jd-viral-07329
Capsid protein VP1 ma-jd-viral-07339
Protein Rep40 (EC ma-jd-viral-20979
Protein Rep52 ma-jd-viral-20978
Protein Rep68 (EC ma-jd-viral-23501
Protein Rep78 ma-jd-viral-23493

Bat adeno-associated virus YNM taxid:727962

Protein ModelArchive
Cap protein ma-jd-viral-07334
Rep protein ma-jd-viral-23494

Bearded dragon parvovirus taxid:1670662

Protein ModelArchive
Assembly activating protein ma-jd-viral-47455
Capsid protein ma-jd-viral-41350
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-23472

Goose parvovirus taxid:38251

Protein ModelArchive
REP ma-jd-viral-23502
VP1 ma-jd-viral-07314
VP2 ma-jd-viral-07276
VP3 ma-jd-viral-07320

Muscovy duck parvovirus taxid:37325

Protein ModelArchive
Capsid protein VP ma-jd-viral-07281
Capsid protein VP ma-jd-viral-07331
Capsid protein VP ma-jd-viral-07338
REP protein ma-jd-viral-23491

adeno-associated virus 7 taxid:202812

Protein ModelArchive
Capsid protein ma-jd-viral-07348
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-23487

adeno-associated virus 8 taxid:202813

Protein ModelArchive
Capsid protein ma-jd-viral-07306
Nonstructural protein ma-jd-viral-23504