Arteriviridae (taxid:76803)



Enveloped, spherical, about 45-60 nm in diameter. The virion is comprised of an isometric core of 20-30 nm surrounded by a lipid-containing envelope. The RNA genome associates with the N protein to form the nucleocapsid.



Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of 12-16kb in size, capped, and polyadenylated. The leader RNA (65-89 bp) at the 5' end of the genome is also present at the end of each subgenomic RNAs.


The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both genome and viral messenger RNA. ORF1b is translated by a ribosomal frameshifting. Polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab are processed into the viral polymerase (RdRp) and other non-structural proteins involved in RNA synthesis. Structural proteins are expressed as subgenomic RNAs. The mRNA2 is bicistronic. PRRSV, LDV and SHFV also express a truncated polyprotein 1aTF due to a ribosomal frameshifting in the nsp2 gene.
The 3' proximal region of SHFV contains in addition a large insertion that may encode three additional glycoproteins. Protein GP2 and 5a are produced by leaky scanning from the E and gp5 subgenomic mRNA respectively.




  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane. ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Synthesis and proteolysis of replicase polyproteins.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.
  7. assembly and ESCRT-independent budding at the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), intermediate compartments, and/or Golgi complex.
  8. Release of new virions by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

The equine arteritis virus and PRRSV induce apoptosis via host caspases activation (caspase-8 and mitochondria-dependent caspase-9)

Autophagy modulation

PRRSV induces autophagy to promote virus replication .

Innate immune response inhibition

PRRSV clearly inhibits the type-I IFN response and down-regulates TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 expression.
At least three non-structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways :

Nsp1α subunit inhibits the IκB phosphorylation in the cytoplasm and therefore the activation of NF-κB.

Nsp1β inhibits phosphorylation of STAT1 and nuclear translocation of ISGF3 complex (composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9). Nsp1β prevents IRF3 activation, thereby interfering with the RIG-I signaling pathway .

Nsp2 inhibits IFN production by blocking the ubiquitinylation of phosphorylated IκB and phosphorylation of IRF3 through the OTU domain. Nsp2 has the potential to deconjugate ISGylation.

Nsp11 suppresses IFN-β production through degradation of IPS-1 mRNA. For the second wave of IFN signaling, PRRSV Nsp1β blocks the phosphorylation of STATs and inhibits the nuclear translocation of ISGF3 complex (composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9).

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to website)

40 entries grouped by strain

10 entries

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (strain Lelystad) (PRRSV) reference strain

E_PRRSL Envelope small membrane protein (Protein E) (Glycoprotein 2b) (Protein GP2b) (Gs)
RPOTF_PRRSL Replicase polyprotein 1TF (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...
RPOA_PRRSL Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...
NCAP_PRRSL Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
GP5_PRRSL Glycoprotein 5 (Protein GP5) (G(L))
M_PRRSL Membrane protein (Protein M)
GP2A_PRRSL Glycoprotein 2a (Protein GP2a) (GP2)
GP3_PRRSL Glycoprotein 3 (Protein GP3)
GP4_PRRSL Glycoprotein 4 (Protein GP4)
ORF5A_PRRSL Structural protein ORF5a

9 entries

Equine arteritis virus (strain Bucyrus) (EAV) reference strain

RPOA_EAVBU Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 papain-like cysteine proteinase ...
GP3_EAVBU Glycoprotein 3 (Protein GP3)
GP5_EAVBU Glycoprotein 5 (Protein GP5) (G(L))
E_EAVBU Envelope small membrane protein (Protein E) (Glycoprotein 2a) (Protein GP2a)
GP2B_EAVBU Glycoprotein 2b (Protein GP2b) (GP(S))
M_EAVBU Membrane protein (Protein M)
GP4_EAVBU Glycoprotein 4 (Protein GP4)
NCAP_EAVBU Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) reference strain

RPOA_SHFV Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1-alpha papain-like cysteine ...

9 entries

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (isolate Pig/United States/SD 01-08/2001) (PRRSV)

RPOA_PRRSS Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...
1ATF_PRRSS Truncated polyprotein 1aTF [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha papain-like cysteine ...
GP2A_PRRSS Glycoprotein 2a (Protein GP2a) (GP2)
E_PRRSS Envelope small membrane protein (Protein E) (Glycoprotein 2b) (Protein GP2b) (Gs)
GP4_PRRSS Glycoprotein 4 (Protein GP4)
GP3_PRRSS Glycoprotein 3 (Protein GP3)
GP5_PRRSS Glycoprotein 5 (Protein GP5) (G(L))
M_PRRSS Membrane protein (Protein M)
NCAP_PRRSS Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

3 entries

Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (strain C) (LDV)

RPOA_LDVC Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1-alpha papain-like cysteine ...
NCAP_LDVC Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VPX_LDVC Protein X (Envelope protein) (VpX)

2 entries

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV)

NCAP_LDV Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
VPX_LDV Protein X (Envelope protein) (VpX)

2 entries

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (strain VR-2332) (PRRSV)

RPOA_PRRSR Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...
ORF5A_PRRSR Structural protein ORF5a

1 entry

Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (strain Plagemann) (LDV)

RPOA_LDVP Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1-alpha papain-like cysteine ...

1 entry

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

RPOA_PRRSV Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...

1 entry

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (strain 16244B) (PRRSV)

RPOA_PRRS1 Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...

1 entry

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (strain HB-1) (PRRSV)

RPOA_PRRSB Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 (EC 3.4.22.-); Nsp1-alpha ...
These structures were created with the help of Colabfold by Jason Nomburg, Nathan Price and Jennifer Doudna (ModelArchive).

African pouched rat arterivirus taxid:1965064

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-34883
Envelope protein M ma-jd-viral-45995
GP2 glycosylated envelope protein ma-jd-viral-46388
GP3 envelope protein ma-jd-viral-62965
GP4 glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-39754
GP5 glycosylated envelope protein ma-jd-viral-03939
Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) ma-jd-viral-09294
ORF5a ma-jd-viral-59412

DeBrazza's monkey arterivirus taxid:1965063

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39871
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-40275
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-41743
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-51824
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03945
M protein ma-jd-viral-45988
Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) ma-jd-viral-09297
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40855
ORF3' protein ma-jd-viral-37997
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39764
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-63074

Free State vervet virus taxid:1737586

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39875
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-39669
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-61561
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-51826
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03950
M protein ma-jd-viral-45990
N protein ma-jd-viral-09302
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40857
ORF3' protein ma-jd-viral-38001
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39756
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-39030
TF protein ma-jd-viral-61866

Kafue kinda chacma baboon virus taxid:1823757

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39877
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-64646
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-35823
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-31449
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03948
M protein ma-jd-viral-45994
N protein ma-jd-viral-09300
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40852
ORF3 ma-jd-viral-37995
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39766
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-46668

Mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 taxid:1546177

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39870
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-64645
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-67644
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-31450
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03944
M protein ma-jd-viral-45992
N protein ma-jd-viral-09298
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40851
ORF3' protein ma-jd-viral-37996
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39761
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-51269

Pebjah virus taxid:1658615

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39872
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-40274
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-29746
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-51823
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03946
M protein ma-jd-viral-45991
N protein ma-jd-viral-09299
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40853
ORF2b' protein ma-jd-viral-39672
ORF3 ma-jd-viral-37999
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39753
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-63075

Rat arterivirus 1 taxid:1734441

Protein ModelArchive
E ma-jd-viral-46363
GP2 ma-jd-viral-39609
GP2 protein ma-jd-viral-39612
GP3 ma-jd-viral-64205
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-64203
GP4 ma-jd-viral-39760
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-39755
GP5 ma-jd-viral-03942
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03938
M ma-jd-viral-44716
Membrane protein ma-jd-viral-44717
Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) ma-jd-viral-09304
Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) ma-jd-viral-09307
ORF2b ma-jd-viral-46359
ORF5a ma-jd-viral-60307

Southwest baboon virus 1 taxid:1546178

Protein ModelArchive
E protein ma-jd-viral-39876
GP2b protein ma-jd-viral-64644
GP3 protein ma-jd-viral-67643
GP4 protein ma-jd-viral-31448
GP5 protein ma-jd-viral-03951
M protein ma-jd-viral-45989
N protein ma-jd-viral-09296
ORF2a' protein ma-jd-viral-40856
ORF2b' protein ma-jd-viral-61001
ORF3' protein ma-jd-viral-38000
ORF4' protein ma-jd-viral-39763
ORF5a protein ma-jd-viral-51270

Wobbly possum disease virus taxid:1118369

Protein ModelArchive
Envelope protein ma-jd-viral-38599
Glycoprotein 2 ma-jd-viral-44830
Glycoprotein 3 ma-jd-viral-58329
Glycoprotein 4 ma-jd-viral-62840
Glycoprotein 5 ma-jd-viral-39816
Glycoprotein 5a ma-jd-viral-57781
Membrane protein ma-jd-viral-29927
Nucleocapsid protein ma-jd-viral-32286