Luteoviridae

VIRION

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Non-enveloped, spherical virion about 25-30 nm in diameter with T=3 icosahedral symmetry composed of 180 CP proteins.

GENOME

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Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of 5.3-5.7 kb. Poleroviruses and enamoviruses have a VPg bound at the 5' end. There is no poly(A) tail or tRNA-like structure at the 3' end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. The viral polymerase is expressed by a ribosomal frameshifting at the end of ORF1.

Depending on the genus, several proteins can be produced by Leaky scanning. Suppression of termination of the CP stop codon produces CP-RTD (CP extended), the capsid subunit essential for aphid transmission.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Virus penetrates into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm.
  3. The viral RNA ORF1 and ORF2 are translated to produce the RdRp fusion protein.
  4. Replication takes place in cytoplasmic viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Expression of the 3' coterminal sgRNAs. Traduction of these sgRNAs yields the capsid, CP-RTD and movement proteins.
  7. Virus assembly.
  8. Viral movement protein probably mediates virion cell-to-cell transfer.

Host-virus interaction

Suppression of RNA silencing

Polerovirus protein P0 acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing by targeting Argonaute 1 for degradation .

Enamovirus protein P0 acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing by targeting Argonaute 1 for degradation

Barley yellow dwarf virus protein P6 acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing