Bocaparvovirus (taxid:1507401)



Non-enveloped, round, T=1 icosahedral symmetry, 21-22 nm in diameter. The capsid consists of 60 copies of CP protein.



Linear, ssDNA genome of about 5.5kb in size. Negative strands are predominantly encapsidated. ORFs for both the structural and non-structural proteins are located on the same DNA strand.
The genome is replicated through rolling-hairpin mechanism.


Host proteins transcribe the genomes into mRNAs. Alternative mRNAs splicing allows expression of at least eight different mRNAs. VP2 is translated by leaky scanning from VP1 gene, VP3 would be produced by cleavage of VP2.



  1. Attachement to host receptors initiates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virion into the host cell.
  2. The virion penetrates into the cytoplasm via permeabilization of host endosomal membrane.
  3. Microtubular transport of the virion toward the nucleus.
  4. The viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  5. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA by cellular proteins.
  6. dsDNA transcription gives rise to viral mRNAs when host cell enters S phase and translated to produce viral proteins.
  7. Replication occurs through rolling-hairpin mechanism, with NS1 endonuclease binding covalently to the 5' genomic end.
  8. Individual ssDNA genomes are excised from replication concatemers by a process called junction resolution.
  9. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated to form new virions that are released by cell lysis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Minute virus of canines (MVC) induces apoptosis and caspases activation

Cell-cycle modulation

MVC induces G2/M checkpoint arrest.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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15 entries grouped by strain

3 entries

Bovine parvovirus 1 (BPV-1) reference strain

NS1_PAVBP Initiator protein NS1 (NS1) (EC 3.1.21.-) (EC (Non-structural protein 1) (Non-structural ...
CAPSD_PAVBP Minor capsid protein VP1 (EC
NP1_PAVBP Non-structural protein NP-1 (NP1)

3 entries

Primate bocaparvovirus 1 (strain Human bocavirus 1 type 1) (HBoV1) (Human bocavirus type 1) reference strain

NS1_HBOC1 Initiator protein NS1 (NS1) (EC 3.1.21.-) (EC (Non-structural protein 1) (Non-structural ...
CAPSD_HBOC1 Minor capsid protein VP1 (EC
NP1_HBOC1 Non-structural protein NP-1 (NP1)

3 entries

Human bocavirus 2 (HBoV2) (Human bocavirus type 2)

NS1_HBOC2 Initiator protein NS1 (NS1) (EC 3.1.21.-) (EC (Non-structural protein 1) (Non-structural ...
CAPSD_HBOC2 Minor capsid protein VP1 (EC
NP1_HBOC2 Non-structural protein NP-1 (NP1)

3 entries

Human bocavirus 3 (HBoV3) (Adelavirus W471)

CAPSD_HBOC3 Minor capsid protein VP1 (EC
NS1_HBOC3 Initiator protein NS1 (NS1) (EC 3.1.21.-) (EC (Non-structural protein 1) (Non-structural ...
NP1_HBOC3 Non-structural protein NP-1 (NP1)

3 entries

Human bocavirus 4 (HBoV4) (Human bocavirus type 4)

NS1_HBOC4 Initiator protein NS1 (NS1) (EC 3.1.21.-) (EC (Non-structural protein 1) (Non-structural ...
CAPSD_HBOC4 Minor capsid protein VP1 (EC
NP1_HBOC4 Non-structural protein NP-1 (NP1)