Cytorhabdovirus

VIRION

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Enveloped, bullet shaped. 180 nm long and 75 nm wide. Certain plant rhabdoviruses are bacilliform in shape and almost twice the length.

GENOME

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Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, about 13 kb in size. Encodes for six (LNYV) to nine (NCMV) proteins.

GENE EXPRESSION

The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes. mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by the L protein during synthesis.

REPLICATION

IN PLANT:CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Virus penetrates into the cell by effraction or plasmodesmata transport.
  2. Sequential transcription , viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
  3. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  4. The ribonucleocapsid can penetrate in neighboring plant cells through plasmodesmata transport
  5. Alternatively the ribonucleocapsid can binds to the matrix protein and budding of particles occurs at the cell membrane, releasing new virions.

IN INSECT:CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host receptors.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; ribonucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Sequential transcription , viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. The ribonucleocapsid binds to the matrix protein and budding of particles occurs at the cell membrane, releasing new virions.

Host-virus interaction

Movement through plasmodesmata

Viral movement protein

Viral movement protein presumably interacts with host plasmodesmata to allow tubule guided movement of viral genomic material from cell to cell without budding.