Inhibition of host interferon signaling pathway by virus

The type I interferons are cytokines produced by mammalian cells in response to virus infection. IFNs exert antiviral function by binding to the IFNalpha/beta receptors on the cell surface, and thereby activating the JAK-STAT signaling cascade. The outcome of the pathway activation is the establishment of an antiviral state in the cell characterized by the expression of hundreds interferon-stimulated genes.

INFRA1 INFRA2 INFRG1 INFRG2 JAK1 JAK1 TYK2 JAK2 STAT1 STAT1 STAT1 STAT1 STAT1 STAT1 STAT1 STAT2 STAT2 STAT2 STAT2 IRF9 IRF9 IRF9 e1a P vh1 V C NS1 NS5 LT VP40 E7 mu2 LMP1 NS5 E6 K3

Many viruses modulate the interferon signaling pathway by inhibiting the cellular proteins participating in this cascade. They can interfere with basically all the components participating in the expression of interferon-stimulated genes including STAT1, STAT2, JAK1, or TYK2.