Human immunodeficiency virus 2

Molecular biology

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic in shape, 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of about 9 kb, with a 5’-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 600nt long at the 5’ and 3’ ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promotor elements in the 5’ LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag and gag-(pro)pol (1 ribosomal frameshift) polyproteins. The uncompletely spliced mRNAs encode env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins, and the accessory proteins vif, vpx, and vpr. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rev, Tat and Nef accessory proteins. Rev escorts unspliced and uncompletely spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host CD4 receptors through the SU glycoprotein (gp120), with subsequent interaction with a chemokine coreceptor.
  2. TM glycoprotein (gp41) mediates fusion with ?the host cell membrane or ?the endosomal membrane like HIV-1?. Nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm, with partial uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA which is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the integrase (=provirus).
  5. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  6. Translation of spliced viral RNAs produces tat, rev, and nef proteins.
  7. Rev mediates nuclear export of the uncompletely spliced RNAs.
  8. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins.
  9. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  10. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  11. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

108 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 90 complete proteome entries)

Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein)

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ENV_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
ENV_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2S2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST/24.1C#2) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
ENV_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag)

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GAG_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
GAG_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
GAG_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)

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NEF_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
NEF_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
NEF_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol)

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POL_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
POL_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
POL_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)

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REV_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
REV_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
REV_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)

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TAT_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
TAT_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
TAT_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

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VIF_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
VIF_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
VIF_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)

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VPR_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
VPR_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)

Protein Vpr (Viral protein R)

VPR_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

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VPX_HV2BEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
VPX_HV2CAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2D1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2G1Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2KRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2NZHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2ROHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2SBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2STHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2D2Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2EHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)
VPX_HV2UCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)