Alphacoronavirus

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical, about 120 nm in diameter. The RNA genome is associated with the N protein to form the nucleocapsid. see Neuman BW et al. for virion cryo-electron microscopy analysis.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear ssRNA(+) genome of 27-32kb in size (the largest of all RNA virus genomes). Capped, and polyadenylated. The leader RNA (65-89 bp) at the 5’ end of the genome is also present at the end of each subgenomic RNAs.

GENE EXPRESSION

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. Genomic RNA encodes for ORF1a, as for ORF1b, it is translated by ribosomal frameshifting. Resulting polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab are processed into the viral polymerase (RdRp) and other non-structural proteins involved in RNA synthesis. Structural proteins are expressed as subgenomic RNAs. Each RNA (genomic and subgenomic) is translated to yield only the protein encoded by the 5’-most ORF.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachement of the viral S protein (maybe also HE if present) to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane (probably mediated by S2), ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Synthesis and proteolytic cleavage of the replicase polyprotein.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.
  7. Assembly and budding at membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the intermediate compartments, and/or the Golgi complex.
  8. Release of new virions.

Host-virus interaction

Innate immune response inhibition

TGEV protein 7 may counteract host antiviral response, possibly by modulating PP1 activity .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

92 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 41 complete proteome entries)

Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)

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NCAP_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
NCAP_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
NCAP_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
NCAP_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NCAP_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NCAP_CVCAKCanine coronavirus (strain K378) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NCAP_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
NCAP_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)
NCAP_CVPR8Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) ...
NCAP_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)
NCAP_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)
NCAP_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Non-structural protein 3 (ns3) (Accessory protein 3a)

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NS3_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
NS3_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)

Non-structural protein 3 (Protein 3) (ns3) (Accessory protein 3a)

NS3_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)

Non-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a)

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NS3A_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
NS3A_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS3A_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS3A_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)

Non-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a) (X2a protein)

NS3A_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Non-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a) (X2a protein)

Putative truncated non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b)

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NS3B_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
NS3B_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

Non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Protein X2)

NS3B_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS3B_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)

Non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Non-structural protein 3-1)

NS3B_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)

Non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Non-structural protein 3-1) (X2b protein)

NS3B_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Putative non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Non-structural protein 3-1) (X2b protein)

Non-structural protein 3x (ns3x) (Accessory protein 3x) (ns3b)

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NS3X_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
NS3X_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

Non-structural protein 4a (ns4a) (Accessory protein 4a)


NS4A_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain

Non-structural protein 4b (ns4b) (Accessory protein 4b)


NS4B_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain

Non-structural protein 7 (ns7) (9 kDa hydrophobic protein) (HP) (Accessory protein 7) (X3 protein)

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NS7_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain

Non-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a)

NS7_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

Non-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 protein)

NS7_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

Non-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 protein)

NS7_CVCAKCanine coronavirus (strain K378) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

Non-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 protein)

NS7_CVFE3Feline enteric coronavirus (strain 79-1683) (FeCoV) (FECV)

Non-structural 7a protein (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a)

NS7_CVPR8Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) ...
NS7_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)
NS7_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)
NS7_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Non-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)

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NS7B_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
NS7B_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS7B_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS7B_CVCAKCanine coronavirus (strain K378) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
NS7B_CVFE3Feline enteric coronavirus (strain 79-1683) (FeCoV) (FECV)

Replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)

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R1A_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
R1A_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
R1A_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
R1A_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)
R1A_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Replicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)

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R1AB_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
R1AB_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
R1AB_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
R1AB_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
R1AB_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)
R1AB_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)

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SPIKE_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
SPIKE_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
SPIKE_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
SPIKE_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
SPIKE_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
SPIKE_CVCAKCanine coronavirus (strain K378) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
SPIKE_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
SPIKE_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)
SPIKE_CVPR8Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) ...
SPIKE_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)
SPIKE_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)
SPIKE_CVPMIPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Miller) (TGEV)
SPIKE_CVPRTPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain NEB72-rt) (TGEV)
SPIKE_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)

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VEMP_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
VEMP_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
VEMP_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4)

VEMP_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
VEMP_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
VEMP_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
VEMP_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4)

VEMP_CVPR8Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) ...

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (ORF 3) (Protein 4) (Protein X1)

VEMP_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (ORF 3) (Protein 4) (Protein X1)

VEMP_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4) (Protein X1)

VEMP_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4) (Protein X1)

Membrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane glycoprotein)

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VME1_FIPVFeline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain
VME1_CVH22Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain
VME1_BC512Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)
VME1_CVCBGCanine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
VME1_CVCAICanine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)
VME1_CVHNLHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
VME1_PEDVBPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain Br1/87) (PEDV)
VME1_PEDV7Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV)
VME1_CVPR8Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) ...
VME1_CVPRMPorcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)
VME1_CVPFSPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)
VME1_CVPPUPorcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV)