RNA editing


Some viruses encode genes that express multiple proteins by using overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) through a process known as RNA editing. In these viruses, the RNA polymerase reads the same template base more than once, creating insertions (0, 1, 2, etc, base insertions), leading to different mRNAs, thereby generating different types of proteins. There are two king of mRNA editing:
- By co-transcriptional editing through polymerase slippage.
- By post-transcriptional editing.


Editing of genomic template would be disastrous, therefore this happens only during transcription in negative stranded RNA viruses, or the edited genomic RNA is not a valid template for replication for deltavirus.


Note: The canonic definition of editing implies a post-transcriptional event, but in virology this term is accepted for polymerase slippage.

co-transcriptional editing, Negative stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Respirovirus BPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Respirovirus hPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AAAGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Henipavirus Nipah virus 1 G P / V / W 50-25-25 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGGG 707-723
Respirovirus Sendai virus 1 G P / V / W 70-25-5 GACUCAACAAAAAAGGG 934-950
Morbilivirus Measles virus 1 G P / V / W 60-35-5 ACACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Phocine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GAACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Rinderpest virus 1 G P / V / W - AAACCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Morbilivirus Canine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GGAUCCAUUAAAAAGGG 675-691
Morbilivirus Dolphin morbillivirus 1 G P / V / W - AAAUCCAUUAAAAAGGG 676-692
Rubulavirus Simian virus 5 2 G V / P - CAUCGAUUUUAAGAGGG 474-490
Rubulavirus Mumps virus 2 G V / P - AACAGAAUUUAAGAGGG 447-463
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 4 2 G V / P - CAGGAUAUUUAAGAGGG 441-457 -
Rubulavirus La piedad, Michoacan virus 2 G V / P - AGCAGUUUUAAAAAGGG 486-502
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 2 2 G V / P - CCCCAACUUUAAGAGGG 470-486
Ebolavirus Ebolavirus 1 A sGP / GP / ssGP - GACCCUUUGAUUUUUUU 870-886


co-transcriptional editing, Positive stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98-2 CUCCAUUUUGGAAAAAA 2954
Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.4-1.6 ......GUGGAAAAAA 2913
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus 1 A P1 / P1N-PISPO 88.2/11.8 .......AUGGAAAAAA 1389
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus +1 A or -1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.2/1.2 or 0.6 UGAGCUUAUGGAAAAAA 3955


Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

129 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 86 complete proteome entries)

Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)

Select_all Deselect_all  
LHDAG_HDVD3Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain
LHDAG_HDVP1Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV) reference strain
LHDAG_HDVAMHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVITHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVM1Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVM2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVS2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVL1Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVNAHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVU2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVWOHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDV83Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVS1Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVTWHepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV2Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV3Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV1Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)

Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

Select_all Deselect_all  
PHOSP_PI3BBovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) reference strain
PHOSP_HENDHHendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
PHOSP_PI2HTHuman parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain
PHOSP_MEASCMeasles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis ... reference strain
PHOSP_MUMPMMumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain
PHOSP_NDVB1Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain
PHOSP_PIV5Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain
PHOSP_SENDOSendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain
PHOSP_SENDZSendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain
PHOSP_CDVOCanine distemper virus (strain Onderstepoort) (CDV)
PHOSP_PI2HHuman parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)
PHOSP_PI3H4Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain Wash/47885/57) (HPIV-3) (Human ...
PHOSP_PI4HAHuman parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)
PHOSP_PI4HBHuman parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)
PHOSP_MEASEMeasles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MEASAMeasles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose ...
PHOSP_MEASIMeasles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MEASYMeasles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis ...
PHOSP_MUMPEMumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)
PHOSP_MUMPSMumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)
PHOSP_MUMP1Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)
PHOSP_NDVU2Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)
PHOSP_NIPAVNipah virus
PHOSP_PHODVPhocine distemper virus (PDV)
PHOSP_RINDKRinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)
PHOSP_RINDRRinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)
PHOSP_SEND6Sendai virus (strain 6/94) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDFSendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDASendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDHSendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)
PHOSP_SV41Simian virus 41 (SV41)
PHOSP_TPMVTupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV)

Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

Select_all Deselect_all  
SHDAG_HDVD3Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain
SHDAG_HDVP1Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV) reference strain
SHDAG_HDVAMHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVITHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVM1Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVM2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVS2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVL1Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVNAHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVU2Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVWOHepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDV83Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVS1Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVTWHepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV2Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV3Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV1Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)

Non-structural protein V

Select_all Deselect_all  
V_HENDHHendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
V_PI2HTHuman parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain
V_MEASCMeasles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis ... reference strain
V_MUMPMMumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_NDVB1Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain

Protein V

V_PIV5Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain
V_SENDOSendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain

Protein V

V_SENDZSendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain

Protein V

V_SV41Simian virus 41 (SV41) reference strain
V_PI2HHuman parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)
V_PI4HAHuman parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)
V_PI4HBHuman parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)
V_MEASEMeasles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MEASAMeasles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose ...
V_MEASIMeasles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MEASYMeasles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis ...
V_MUMPEMumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_MUMPSMumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_MUMP1Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_NDVU2Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)
V_NIPAVNipah virus
V_PHODVPhocine distemper virus (PDV)
V_RINDKRinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)
V_RINDRRinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)
V_SENDFSendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)

Protein V

V_SENDASendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)

Protein V

V_SENDHSendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)

Protein V

V_TPMVTupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV)

Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)

Select_all Deselect_all  
VGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORSReston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSBSudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSMSudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_TAFVCTai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola ...
VGP_EBOECZaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

Select_all Deselect_all  
VSGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORSReston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSBSudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSMSudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_TAFVCTai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola ...
VSGP_EBOECZaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

Select_all Deselect_all  
VSSGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSSGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Protein W

Select_all Deselect_all  
W_HENDHHendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
W_NDVB1Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain
W_SENDOSendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain
W_SENDZSendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain
W_NIPAVNipah virus
W_SENDFSendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)
W_SENDASendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)
W_SENDHSendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)