Deltaretrovirus

Molecular biology

VIRION

Enveloped. Spherical to pleomorphic, about 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of 8.4-9 kb, with a 5’-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 550-750 nt long at the 5’ and 3’ ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promoter elements in the 5’LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag, gag-pro (1 ribosomal frameshift), and gag-pro-pol (2 ribosomal frameshifts) polyproteins. The singly spliced mRNA encodes env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rex and Tax. Rex escorts unspliced and singly spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells. Tax is a transcriptional activator that activates viral and cellular genes.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host receptors through the SU glycoprotein. TM glycoprotein mediates fusion with cell membrane.
  2. Internalization and uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA when the nuclear membrane is disassembled at mitosis.
  5. Viral dsDNA is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the viral integrase (=provirus).
  6. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  7. Translation of fully spliced viral RNAs produces tax and rex proteins.
  8. Rex mediates nuclear export of the incompletely spliced RNAs.
  9. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag, Gag-Pro and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins.
  10. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  11. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  12. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

61 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 36 complete proteome entries)

Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein)

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ENV_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain

Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain

Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_BLVBovine leukemia virus (BLV)
ENV_BLVAFBovine leukemia virus (isolate American FLK) (BLV)
ENV_BLVAVBovine leukemia virus (isolate American VDM) (BLV)
ENV_BLVAUBovine leukemia virus (isolate Australian) (BLV)
ENV_BLVB2Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Belgium LB285) (BLV)
ENV_BLVB5Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Belgium LB59) (BLV)
ENV_BLVJBovine leukemia virus (isolate Japanese BLV-1) (BLV)
ENV_HTL1NHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea CH subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL1FHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL1MHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan MT-2 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein)

ENV_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein)

Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag)

Select_all Deselect_all  
GAG_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
GAG_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain
GAG_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain
GAG_BLVAUBovine leukemia virus (isolate Australian) (BLV)

Gag polyprotein

GAG_BLVJBovine leukemia virus (isolate Japanese BLV-1) (BLV)

Gag polyprotein

GAG_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)
GAG_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
GAG_HTL1MHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan MT-2 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
GAG_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)

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HBZ_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
HBZ_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)
HBZ_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Accessory protein p12I

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P12I_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
P12I_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Accessory protein p30II

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P30II_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
P30II_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol)

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POL_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
POL_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain
POL_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain
POL_BLVAUBovine leukemia virus (isolate Australian) (BLV)

Pol polyprotein

POL_BLVJBovine leukemia virus (isolate Japanese BLV-1) (BLV)

Pol polyprotein

POL_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)
POL_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
POL_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro)

Select_all Deselect_all  
PRO_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
PRO_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain
PRO_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain
PRO_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)
PRO_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
PRO_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)

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REX_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
REX_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain

Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-2)

REX_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain

Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-3)

REX_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)
REX_HTL1FHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)
REX_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
REX_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-3)

Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Protein PX) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)

Select_all Deselect_all  
TAX_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
TAX_HTLV2Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain

Protein Tax-2 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-2)

TAX_HTL32Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain

Protein Tax-3 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-3)

TAX_HTL1LHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)

Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)

TAX_HTL1FHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)

Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)

TAX_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
TAX_HTL3PHuman T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Protein Tax-3 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-3)

Protease (EC 3.4.23.-)


VPRT_BLVJBovine leukemia virus (isolate Japanese BLV-1) (BLV)