Alphacoronavirus

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical, about 120 nm in diameter. The RNA genome is associated with the N protein to form the nucleocapsid. see Neuman BW et al. for virion cryo-electron microscopy analysis.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear ssRNA(+) genome of 27-32kb in size (the largest of all RNA virus genomes). Capped, and polyadenylated. The leader RNA (65-89 bp) at the 5’ end of the genome is also present at the end of each subgenomic RNAs.

GENE EXPRESSION

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. Genomic RNA encodes for ORF1a, as for ORF1b, it is translated by ribosomal frameshifting. Resulting polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab are processed into the viral polymerase (RdRp) and other non-structural proteins involved in RNA synthesis. Structural proteins are expressed as subgenomic RNAs. Each RNA (genomic and subgenomic) is translated to yield only the protein encoded by the 5’-most ORF.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachement of the viral S protein (maybe also HE if present) to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane (probably mediated by S2), ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Synthesis and proteolytic cleavage of the replicase polyprotein.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.
  7. Assembly and budding at membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the intermediate compartments, and/or the Golgi complex.
  8. Release of new virions by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Innate immune response inhibition

TGEV protein 7 may counteract host antiviral response, possibly by modulating PP1 activity .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

92 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 48 complete proteome entries)

10 entries

Feline coronavirus (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) (FCoV) reference strain

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NCAP_FIPVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3A_FIPVNon-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a)
NS3B_FIPVPutative truncated non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b)
NS3X_FIPVNon-structural protein 3x (ns3x) (Accessory protein 3x) (ns3b)
NS7B_FIPVNon-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)
NS7_FIPVNon-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a)
R1AB_FIPVReplicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
SPIKE_FIPVSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_FIPVEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)
VME1_FIPVMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

9 entries

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Purdue) (TGEV) reference strain

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NCAP_CVPPUNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3A_CVPPUNon-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a) (X2a protein)
NS3B_CVPPUPutative non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) ...
NS7_CVPPUNon-structural protein 7 (ns7) (9 kDa hydrophobic protein) (HP) (Accessory ...
R1AB_CVPPUReplicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
R1A_CVPPUReplicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)
SPIKE_CVPPUSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVPPUEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4) (Protein ...
VME1_CVPPUMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

8 entries

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) reference strain

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NCAP_CVH22Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS4A_CVH22Non-structural protein 4a (ns4a) (Accessory protein 4a)
NS4B_CVH22Non-structural protein 4b (ns4b) (Accessory protein 4b)
R1AB_CVH22Replicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
R1A_CVH22Replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)
SPIKE_CVH22Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVH22Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)
VME1_CVH22Membrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

7 entries

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) reference strain

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NCAP_CVHNLNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3_CVHNLNon-structural protein 3 (Protein 3) (ns3) (Accessory protein 3a)
R1AB_CVHNLReplicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
R1A_CVHNLReplicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)
SPIKE_CVHNLSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVHNLEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)
VME1_CVHNLMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

7 entries

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV777) (PEDV) reference strain

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NCAP_PEDV7Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3_PEDV7Non-structural protein 3 (ns3) (Accessory protein 3a)
R1AB_PEDV7Replicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
R1A_PEDV7Replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)
SPIKE_PEDV7Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_PEDV7Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4)
VME1_PEDV7Membrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

9 entries

Canine coronavirus (strain Insavc-1) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

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NCAP_CVCAINucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3A_CVCAINon-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a)
NS3B_CVCAIPutative truncated non-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b)
NS3X_CVCAINon-structural protein 3x (ns3x) (Accessory protein 3x) (ns3b)
NS7B_CVCAINon-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)
NS7_CVCAINon-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 ...
SPIKE_CVCAISpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVCAIEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)
VME1_CVCAIMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

8 entries

Canine coronavirus (strain BGF10) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

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NCAP_CVCBGNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3A_CVCBGNon-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a)
NS3B_CVCBGNon-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Protein X2)
NS7B_CVCBGNon-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)
NS7_CVCBGNon-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 ...
SPIKE_CVCBGSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVCBGEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein)
VME1_CVCBGMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

7 entries

Bat coronavirus 512/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/512/2005)

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NCAP_BC512Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3_BC512Non-structural protein 3 (ns3) (Accessory protein 3a)
R1AB_BC512Replicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)
R1A_BC512Replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)
SPIKE_BC512Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_BC512Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4)
VME1_BC512Membrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

7 entries

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain FS772/70) (TGEV)

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NCAP_CVPFSNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3A_CVPFSNon-structural protein 3a (ns3a) (Accessory protein 3a) (X2a protein)
NS3B_CVPFSNon-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Non-structural protein ...
NS7_CVPFSNon-structural protein 7 (ns7) (9 kDa hydrophobic protein) (HP) (Accessory ...
SPIKE_CVPFSSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVPFSEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (Protein NS4) (Protein ...
VME1_CVPFSMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

6 entries

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain RM4) (PRCoV) (PRCV)

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NCAP_CVPRMNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS3B_CVPRMNon-structural protein 3b (ns3b) (Accessory protein 3b) (Non-structural protein ...
NS7_CVPRMNon-structural protein 7 (ns7) (9 kDa hydrophobic protein) (HP) (Accessory ...
SPIKE_CVPRMSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVPRMEnvelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (ORF 3) (Protein 4) ...
VME1_CVPRMMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

5 entries

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (strain 86/137004 / isolate British) (PRCoV) (PRCV)

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NCAP_CVPR8Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS7_CVPR8Non-structural protein 7 (ns7) (9 kDa hydrophobic protein) (HP) (Accessory ...
SPIKE_CVPR8Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)
VEMP_CVPR8Envelope small membrane protein (E protein) (sM protein) (ORF 3) (Protein 4) ...
VME1_CVPR8Membrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

4 entries

Canine coronavirus (strain K378) (CCoV) (Canine enteric coronavirus)

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NCAP_CVCAKNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (NC) (Protein N)
NS7B_CVCAKNon-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)
NS7_CVCAKNon-structural protein 7a (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a) (X3 ...
SPIKE_CVCAKSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)

2 entries

Feline enteric coronavirus (strain 79-1683) (FeCoV) (FECV)

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NS7B_CVFE3Non-structural protein 7b (ns7b) (Accessory protein 7b)
NS7_CVFE3Non-structural 7a protein (ns7a) (11 kDa protein) (Accessory protein 7a)

1 entry

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain Br1/87) (PEDV)


VME1_PEDVBMembrane protein (M protein) (E1 glycoprotein) (Matrix glycoprotein) (Membrane ...

1 entry

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain Miller) (TGEV)


SPIKE_CVPMISpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)

1 entry

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (strain NEB72-rt) (TGEV)


SPIKE_CVPRTSpike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein) (E2) (Peplomer protein)