Non-enveloped, head-tail structure. The prolate head is about 140 nm in length and 70 nm in width. The tail is contractile, has 6 long terminal fibers, 6 short spikes and a small base plate.


Linear, dsDNA genome of about 170-245 kb, encoding for 300-415 proteins.


Genes are transcribed by operons.



  1. Adsorption: the phage attaches to the target cell through its tail fibers.
  2. Viral exolysin degrades host cell wall locally.
  3. Ejection of the viral DNA into host cell cytoplasm by contraction of the tail sheath.
  4. Transcription and translation of early genes.
  5. Replication of genomic DNA. Transcription and translation of late genes.
  6. Assembly of an empty procapsid and packaging of the genome.
  7. Viral tail fibers assembly and viral tail assembly.
  8. Mature virions are released from the cell by lysis.