Alphaarterivirus (taxid:2499610)



Enveloped, spherical, about 45-60 nm in diameter. The virion is comprised of an isometric core of 20-30 nm surrounded by a lipid-containing envelope. The RNA genome associates with the N protein to form the nucleocapsid.



Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of 12-13kb in size, capped, and polyadenylated. The leader RNA (65-89 bp) at the 5' end of the genome is also present at the end of each subgenomic RNAs.

Enzymes: EndoU ribonuclease


The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both genome and viral messenger RNA. ORF1b is translated by a ribosomal frameshifting. Polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab are processed into the viral polymerase (RdRp) and other non-structural proteins involved in RNA synthesis. Structural proteins are expressed as subgenomic RNAs. The mRNA2 is bicistronic.
Protein GP2 and 5a are produced by leaky scanning from the E and gp5 subgenomic mRNA respectively.




  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane. ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Synthesis and proteolysis of replicase polyproteins.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.
  7. assembly and ESCRT-independent budding at the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), intermediate compartments, and/or Golgi complex.
  8. Release of new virions by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

The equine arteritis virus induces apoptosis via host caspases activation (caspase-8 and mitochondria-dependent caspase-9)

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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9 entries grouped by strain

9 entries

Equine arteritis virus (strain Bucyrus) (EAV) reference strain

RPOA_EAVBU Replicase polyprotein 1ab (ORF1ab polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Nsp1 papain-like cysteine proteinase ...
GP3_EAVBU Glycoprotein 3 (Protein GP3)
GP5_EAVBU Glycoprotein 5 (Protein GP5) (G(L))
E_EAVBU Envelope small membrane protein (Protein E) (Glycoprotein 2a) (Protein GP2a)
GP2B_EAVBU Glycoprotein 2b (Protein GP2b) (GP(S))
M_EAVBU Membrane protein (Protein M)
GP4_EAVBU Glycoprotein 4 (Protein GP4)
NCAP_EAVBU Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)