Enveloped, spherical. Diameter from 150nm to 300nm.



Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, about 15-16 kb in size. Encodes for eight proteins.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes. mRNAs are capped and "polyadenylated" by the L protein during synthesis. The V protein is produced through RNA editing and the C protein is produced by Leaky scanning of The P mRNA.



  1. Virus attaches to host cell surface receptors through H glycoprotein.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane; ribonucleocapsid is released in the cytoplasm.
  3. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated in the cytoplasm.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. the ribonucleocapsid interacts with the matrix protein under the plasma membrane and buds via the ESCRT complex, releasing the virion.

Host-virus interaction

Inhibition of host Interferon induction

The V protein plays a role in inhibition of MDA-5 antiviral signaling

The V also blocks the type I interferon signaling pathway by interacting with and inhibiting host TYK2