Bornaviridae (taxid:178830)



Enveloped, spherical. Diameter from 70 to 130 nm.


Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, about 8.9 kb in size. Encodes for six proteins to 9 proteins.

Enzymes: RNA dependent RNA polymerase, RNA guanylyl transferase, mRNA methyltransferase.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes. mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by the L protein during synthesis. the third transcript encodes M, G and L by alternative splicing.




  1. Attachement of the viral GP glycoproteins to host receptors mediates Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; ribonucleocapsid is released and migrates to the nucleus.
  3. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm. M, G and L proteins are produced by alternative splicing.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. Neo-synthesized ribo-nucleocapsids exit out of the nucleus by nuclear pore export.
  6. Cytoplasmic ribo-nucleocapsids bind to the matrix protein under cell membrane, inducing particle budding.
  7. Release of new virions.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

The bornavirus X protein has been shown to play a role both for viral replication and apoptosis modulation

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to website)

12 entries grouped by strain

6 entries

Borna disease virus (strain V) (BDV) reference strain

NCAP_BDVV Nucleoprotein (N protein) (Nucleocapsid protein) (p38) (p40)
X_BDVV X protein (p10)
VGLG_BDVV Envelope glycoprotein p57 (gp84) (gp94) [Cleaved into: Envelope glycoprotein p27; Envelope ...
MATRX_BDVV Matrix protein (gp18) (p16)
PHOSP_BDVV Phosphoprotein (P protein) (p23) (p24)
L_BDVV RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural protein) (Replicase) ...

6 entries

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)

VGLG_BDV1 Envelope glycoprotein p57 (gp84) (gp94) [Cleaved into: Envelope glycoprotein p27; Envelope ...
MATRX_BDV1 Matrix protein (gp18) (p16)
NCAP_BDV1 Nucleoprotein (N protein) (Nucleocapsid protein) (p38) (p40)
PHOSP_BDV1 Phosphoprotein (P protein) (p23) (p24)
L_BDV1 RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural protein) (Replicase) ...
X_BDV1 X protein (p10)
These structures were created with the help of Colabfold by Jason Nomburg, Nathan Price and Jennifer Doudna (ModelArchive).

Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 taxid:1715293

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48450
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01248
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15239
Phosphoprotein (Phospoprotein) ma-jd-viral-57204
X protein ma-jd-viral-36798

Aquatic bird bornavirus 2 taxid:1884917

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48461
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01251
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15243
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57198
X protein ma-jd-viral-36799

Borna disease virus (strain V) taxid:928296

Protein ModelArchive
Envelope glycoprotein p57 (gp84) (gp94) ma-jd-viral-48455
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01255
Matrix protein (gp18) (p16) ma-jd-viral-01255
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15248
Nucleoprotein (N protein) (Nucleocapsid protein) (p38) (p40) ma-jd-viral-15248
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57203
Phosphoprotein (P protein) (p23) (p24) ma-jd-viral-57203
X protein (p10) ma-jd-viral-36800

Borna disease virus 1 taxid:1714621

Protein ModelArchive
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01255
Matrix protein (gp18) (p16) ma-jd-viral-01255
N protein (Nucleoprotein) ma-jd-viral-15248
X protein (p10) ma-jd-viral-36800

Borna disease virus 2 taxid:1714622

Protein ModelArchive
G protein (Glycoprotein) ma-jd-viral-48451
M protein (Matrix protein) ma-jd-viral-01245
N protein (Nucleoprotein) ma-jd-viral-15238
P protein (Phosphoprotein) ma-jd-viral-57194
X protein ma-jd-viral-36801

Canary bornavirus 1 taxid:1715288

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48449
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01254
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15247
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57197
X protein ma-jd-viral-36797

Canary bornavirus 2 taxid:1715290

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48453
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01246
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15242
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57199
X protein ma-jd-viral-36792

Canary bornavirus 3 taxid:1715291

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48446
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01257
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15244
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57205
X protein ma-jd-viral-36796

Loveridge's garter snake virus 1 taxid:1881951

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48447
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01250
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15245
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57200
X protein ma-jd-viral-41310

Parrot bornavirus 2 taxid:1548715

Protein ModelArchive
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01252
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15250
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57195
X protein (p10 protein) ma-jd-viral-36793
p57 glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48460

Parrot bornavirus 4 taxid:1548718

Protein ModelArchive
G ma-jd-viral-48452
M ma-jd-viral-01249
N ma-jd-viral-15249
P ma-jd-viral-57201
X protein ma-jd-viral-36795

Parrot bornavirus 7 taxid:1548719

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48458
Matrix protein ma-jd-viral-01247
Nucleoprotein ma-jd-viral-15241
Phosphoprotein ma-jd-viral-57202
X protein ma-jd-viral-36791

Variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 taxid:1885248

Protein ModelArchive
Glycoprotein ma-jd-viral-48459
Gp18 (M) ma-jd-viral-01253
P (p23) ma-jd-viral-57206
X (p10) ma-jd-viral-36794
p40 ma-jd-viral-15240