Nairoviridae (taxid:1980415)



Enveloped, spherical. Diameter from 80 to 120nm.



Segmented Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, L segment is between 6.8 and 12 kb, M segment between 3.2 and 4.9 kb and S segment between 1 and 3 kb.
Encodes for four to six proteins.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L) binds to a promoter on each encapsidated segment, and transcribes the mRNA. Transcription is terminated by a strong hairpin sequence at the end of each gene. These are capped by L protein during synthesis using cap snatching .




  1. Virus attaches to host receptors though Gn-Gc glycoprotein dimer, and is endocytosed into vesicles in the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; ribonucleocapsid segments are released in the cytoplasm.
  3. Transcription, viral mRNAs are capped in the cytoplasm.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. The ribonucleocapsids buds at Golgi apparatus, releasing the virion by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Inhibition of host innate immunity

The nairovirus L protein contains an ovarian tumor domain-containing deubiquitinase that targets activated RIG-I to control innate immune signaling.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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11 entries grouped by strain

4 entries

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (strain Nigeria/IbAr10200/1970) (CCHFV) reference strain

NCAP_CCHFI Nucleoprotein (EC 3.1.-.-) (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
L_CCHFI RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) (Replicase) (Transcriptase) ...
GP_CCHFI Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Mucin-like variable region; GP38; ...
NSS_CCHFI Non-structural protein (NSs)

3 entries

Dugbe virus (isolate ArD44313) (DUGV) reference strain

L_DUGBA RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) (Replicase) (Transcriptase) ...
GP_DUGBA Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Mucin-like variable region; GP38; ...
NCAP_DUGBA Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

2 entries

Hazara virus (isolate JC280) reference strain

GP_HAZVJ Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein) [Cleaved into: GP38; Glycoprotein N (Gn) (Glycoprotein G2); ...
NCAP_HAZVJ Nucleoprotein (EC 3.1.-.-) (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (isolate C68031) (CCHFV)

NCAP_CCHFV Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Dugbe virus

NCAP_DUGBV Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)