Simplexvirus

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 150-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. The capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of 152 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.

GENE EXPRESSION

All genes are transcribed by the host RNA polymerase II. and most mRNAs are unspliced. There are three temporal classes of genes: immediate-early (alpha), early (beta) and late (gamma). The immediate-early genes are transcribed immediately after infection to take control of cell defense and to activate early genes. These encode the proteins necessary for the viral DNA replication. The late genes mostly encode structural proteins. Latent genes can stop the replicative process at the early step. Certain proteins are downregulated translationaly by a leaky scanning from an upstream ORF.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral gB, gC, gD and gH proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Adaptive immune response inhibition

Herpes simplex protein US12 binds specifically to transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP), blocking peptide-binding to TAP and subsequent loading of peptides onto MHC class I molecules . Herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B and US3 collaborate to inhibit CD1d antigen presentation and NKT cell function .

Apoptosis modulation

The viral kinase US3 modulates host apoptosis in different ways. It activates host protein kinase A/PKA to block apoptosis. Additionally, it also interacts with programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and retains it in the nucleus thereby inhibiting host apoptosis .

Autophagy modulation

Herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 confers neurovirulence by targeting the Beclin 1 autophagy protein and thus blocking host autophagy process .

Cell-cycle modulation

The viral proteins ICP27 and vhs act jointly to repress host gene transcription and blocks the cell cycle at the G1 phase . In addition the UL24 protein induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex .

Innate immune response inhibition

Herpes simplex virus inhibits the cascade leading to production of interferon-beta by targeting different cellular proteins. ICP34.5 forms a complex with host TBK1 and thus disrupts the interaction of TBK1-containing complexes with IRF3 . Another viral protein, ICP0, prevents IRF3 activation and subsequent induction of IFN-beta expression .

Host splicing inhibition

HSV-1 ICP27 is an alternative splicing regulator of host mRNA. It has been shown to act as a splicing silencer at the 3' splice site of the PML intron 7a .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

146 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

Only complete proteome entries are shown (view all 230 entries)

73 entries

Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
GM_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
NP04_HHV11 Nuclear protein UL4
GH_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
NEC1_HHV11 Nuclear egress protein 1
PAP_HHV11 DNA polymerase processivity factor (DNA-binding protein UL42) (Polymerase accessory protein) (PAP)
ICP34_HHV11 Neurovirulence factor ICP34.5 (Infected cell protein 34.5) (protein gamma(1)34.5)
GJ_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein J
PORTL_HHV11 Portal protein
GE_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein E (gE) (gE-1)
NEC2_HHV11 Nuclear egress protein 2
GI_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein I (gI)
HELI_HHV11 DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
ICP0_HHV11 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ICP0 (EC 2.3.2.27) (Alpha-0 protein) (Immediate-early protein IE110) ...
KITH_HHV11 Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)
GB_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
ICP27_HHV11 mRNA export factor (Immediate-early protein IE63) (Infected cell protein 27) (ICP27) (VMW63)
ICP22_HHV11 Transcriptional regulator ICP22 (Immediate-early protein IE68) (Infected cell protein 22) (ICP22)
MCP_HHV11 Major capsid protein (MCP)
GG_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein G (gG) (gG-1)
ICP47_HHV11 ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...
LTP_HHV11 Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC 3.4.19.12) (EC 3.4.22.-)
MB43_HHV11 Membrane protein UL43
ICP4_HHV11 Major viral transcription factor ICP4 (Alpha-4 protein) (Infected cell protein 4) (Transcriptional ...
DPOL_HHV11 DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC 2.7.7.7) (EC 3.1.26.4)
GL_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
CVC2_HHV11 Capsid vertex component 2
EV45_HHV11 Envelope protein UL45 (18 kDa protein)
DUT_HHV11 Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
UL20_HHV11 Protein UL20
US9_HHV11 Envelope protein US9 (10 kDa protein)
ITP_HHV11 Inner tegument protein (EC 3.5.1.-) (EC 3.5.1.44) (Viral deamidase UL37)
HEPA_HHV11 DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated factor)
NP03_HHV11 Nuclear phosphoprotein UL3
UNG_HHV11 Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC 3.2.2.27) (UNG)
UL24_HHV11 Protein UL24
TEG3_HHV11 Tegument protein UL14
TEG6_HHV11 Tegument protein UL55
TRM2_HHV11 Tripartite terminase subunit 2
GD_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein D (gD)
GK_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein K (Syncytial protein)
SHUT_HHV11 Virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) (EC 3.1.27.-)
TEG4_HHV11 Tegument protein UL21
OBP_HHV11 Replication origin-binding protein (OBP) (OriBP)
TEG5_HHV11 Tegument protein UL47 (82/81 kDa tegument protein) (VMW82/81) (VP13/14)
UL13_HHV11 Serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13 (EC 2.7.11.1) (Virion protein VMW57)
UL56_HHV11 Protein UL56
SCP_HHV11 Small capsomere-interacting protein
US10_HHV11 Virion protein US10
US02_HHV11 Protein US2
PRIM_HHV11 DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
TRM3_HHV11 Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
US8A_HHV11 Protein US8.5
TEG1_HHV11 Tegument protein UL46 (Tegument protein VP11/12)
DNBI_HHV11 Major DNA-binding protein
RIR2_HHV11 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
RIR1_HHV11 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
TRX1_HHV11 Triplex capsid protein 1
TEG7_HHV11 Tegument protein UL51
TRM1_HHV11 Tripartite terminase subunit 1
TRX2_HHV11 Triplex capsid protein 2
UL32_HHV11 Packaging protein UL32
US03_HHV11 Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 (EC 2.7.11.1)
RNB_HHV11 Accessory factor US11 (Vmw21)
VP22_HHV11 Tegument protein VP22
CEP2_HHV11 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_HHV11 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CVC1_HHV11 Capsid vertex component 1
AN_HHV11 Alkaline nuclease (EC 3.1.-.-)
GN_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein N
GC_HHV11 Envelope glycoprotein C
CEP1_HHV11 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
VP16_HHV11 Tegument protein VP16 (Alpha trans-inducing protein) (Alpha-TIF) (ICP25) (Vmw65)
SCAF_HHV11 Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) (Virion structural ...

72 entries

Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
PRIM_HHV2H DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
PORTL_HHV2H Portal protein
ICP27_HHV2H mRNA export factor (Immediate-early protein IE63) (Infected cell protein 27) (ICP27) (VMW63)
DPOL_HHV2H DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC 2.7.7.7) (EC 3.1.26.4)
DUT_HHV2H Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
GH_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
PAP_HHV2H DNA polymerase processivity factor (DNA-binding protein UL42) (Polymerase accessory protein) (PAP)
NEC2_HHV2H Nuclear egress protein 2
MB43_HHV2H Membrane protein UL43
GI_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein I (gI)
GM_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GK_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein K (Syncytial protein)
OBP_HHV2H Replication origin-binding protein (OBP) (OriBP)
ICP22_HHV2H Transcriptional regulator ICP22 (Immediate-early protein IE68) (Infected cell protein 22) (ICP22)
ICP4_HHV2H Major viral transcription factor ICP4 homolog (Alpha-4 protein) (Infected cell protein 4) ...
KITH_HHV2H Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)
GL_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
NP03_HHV2H Nuclear phosphoprotein UL3
ITP_HHV2H Inner tegument protein
ICP34_HHV2H Neurovirulence factor ICP34.5 (Infected cell protein 34.5) (protein gamma(1)34.5)
ICP47_HHV2H ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...
DNBI_HHV2H Major DNA-binding protein
HEPA_HHV2H DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated factor)
HELI_HHV2H DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
GG_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein G (gG) (gG-2)
ICP0_HHV2H E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ICP0 (EC 2.3.2.27) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferaseICP0) (VMW118 ...
GD_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein D (gD)
GE_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein E (gE) (gE-2)
MCP_HHV2H Major capsid protein (MCP)
CVC1_HHV2H Capsid vertex component 1
SHUT_HHV2H Virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) (EC 3.1.27.-)
TEG3_HHV2H Tegument protein UL14
SCP_HHV2H Small capsomere-interacting protein
TRX1_HHV2H Triplex capsid protein 1
SCAF_HHV2H Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) (Virion structural ...
TEG5_HHV2H Tegument protein UL47 (82/81 kDa tegument protein) (VMW82/81) (VP13/14)
TRX2_HHV2H Triplex capsid protein 2
TEG4_HHV2H Tegument protein UL21
TRM2_HHV2H Tripartite terminase subunit 2
TEG1_HHV2H Tegument protein UL46 (Tegument protein VP11/12)
UNG_HHV2H Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC 3.2.2.27) (UNG)
UL24_HHV2H Protein UL24
RIR2_HHV2H Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
US10_HHV2H Virion protein US10
US9_HHV2H Envelope protein US9 (10 kDa protein)
NEC1_HHV2H Nuclear egress protein 1
GJ_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein J
LTP_HHV2H Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC 3.4.19.12) (EC 3.4.22.-)
NP04_HHV2H Nuclear protein UL4
RIR1_HHV2H Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
TEG7_HHV2H Tegument protein UL51
TEG6_HHV2H Tegument protein UL55
TRM1_HHV2H Tripartite terminase subunit 1
VP16_HHV2H Tegument protein VP16 (Alpha trans-inducing protein) (Alpha-TIF) (ICP25) (Vmw65)
UL56_HHV2H Protein UL56
US03_HHV2H Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 (EC 2.7.11.1)
US8A_HHV2H Protein US8.5
UL32_HHV2H Packaging protein UL32
US02_HHV2H Protein US2
UL13_HHV2H Serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13 (EC 2.7.11.1)
GB_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
CEP3_HHV2H Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CEP2_HHV2H Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP1_HHV2H Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CVC2_HHV2H Capsid vertex component 2
EV45_HHV2H Envelope protein UL45 (18 kDa protein)
TRM3_HHV2H Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
UL20_HHV2H Protein UL20
RNB_HHV2H Probable RNA-binding protein
VP22_HHV2H Tegument protein VP22
GN_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein N
GC_HHV2H Envelope glycoprotein C

1 entry

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) (Simian herpes B virus) reference strain

GE_CHV1 Envelope glycoprotein E (gE)