Virus receptors table

Updated: 27.05.2019; 266 entries

This table lists virus receptors published and having a valid role in vivo.
The receptors function have been classified as adhesion or entry receptors. The Type indicates the general class of molecule bound by the virus: transporter, polysaccharide, lectin,.. Host expression indicates the tissue expressing the receptor in Host, data mostly recovered in Human Protein Atlas. Virus tropism indicates the tissues actually infected by the virus in vivo, as described in the litterature. Entry mode indicates the way the virus cross host cell membrane according to ViralZone data.
Proteins or biological compounds names are linked to wikipedia, the icon links to UniProtKB, the logo links to Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and the logo links to PubMed

Neurotropism of Enterovirus D68 Isolates Is Independent of Sialic Acid and Is Not a Recently Acquired Phenotype
Amy B. Rosenfeld, Audrey L. Warren, Vincent R. Racaniello
MBio 22 octobre 2019; 10
Virus Family virion Host function Viral protein Receptor Type Host expression Virus tropism entry mode
Bacteriophage Mu Myoviridae, Mulikevirus dsDNA Non-env Bacteria Adhesion Tail fiber protein S
Polysaccharide part of LPS Carbohydrate NA NA Viral genome ejection through host cell envelope
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1
linear sialylated pentasaccharide Carbohydrate ? oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clat.
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1
Serotonin Receptor
Receptor Neurons in central nervous system oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1
Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1
Ganglioside GD1b
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1
Ganglioside GT1b
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Attachement VP1
Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1
Ganglioside GD1a
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1
Ganglioside GT1b
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Merkel cell polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Entry VP1
Ganglioside GT1b
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous Skin, respiratory and gastro intestinal epitheliums Lipid-mediated endocytosis
Simian virus 40 Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP1
Ganglioside GM1
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human papillomavirus 16 Papillomaviridae, Alphapapillomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human entry capsid protein L1
Integrin α6 Adhesion molecule Bronchial epithelial cells Genital mucosa Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein B/C
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
Nectin 1(PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
Nectin 2 (PVRL2)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
TNFRSF14 (HVEM)
Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein H/L
Integrin αV β6
Adhesion molecule ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein B/C Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D TNFRSF14 (HVEM) Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D Nectin 1(PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein D Nectin 2 (PVRL2)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein B Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in sensory ganglia Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E Insulinase (IDE) Peptidase neurons Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein B/C
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
HLA MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry Envelope glycoprotein H
Integrin α4 β1
Adhesion molecule Leukocytes epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-4 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
MHC class I (HLA)
MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein B/C
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
Poliovirus receptor (PVR)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry Envelope glycoprotein D
Nectin 1 (PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gp350
CR1
Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gp350
CR2
Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gp42
HLA-DRB1
MHC-I B lymphocytes B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein BMRF2
Integrin β1
Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gH/gL
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gB
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gB
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gH/gL
Integrin αV β3
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gB
Integrin β1
Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gB
EGFR
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gQ1/gQ2
CD46
Receptor Ubiquitous T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gQ1/gQ2
TNFRSF4
Receptor Lymphocytes T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gB
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? CD4
Receptor T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gB
Integrin αV β3
Adhesion molecule ? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein gB/gC
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gD
Poliovirus receptor (PVR)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gD
Nectin 1 (PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein gD
Nectin 2 (PVRL2)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
? ? ? dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion A27, D8, H3

Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion Protein A26
Laminin Extracellular matrix dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Adenovirus type B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein
CD80
Adhesion molecule B cells, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus type B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein
CD86
Adhesion molecule B lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus type D Ad37 Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein
Sialic acids Carbohydrate Epithelial cells, blood cells, ubiquitous corneal and genital epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus type D Ad37 Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein
Ganglioside GD1a
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous corneal and genital epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus type B2 and Ad3 Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein
CD46
Receptor Ubiquitous ? ?
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion Fiber protein
CXADR
Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Penton protein
Integrin αV β5?
Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Enterobacteria phage PhiX174 Microviridae,
Microvirus
ssDNA Non-env Bacteria Adhesion Spike G protein
LPS? Carbohydrate NA NA Viral attachment to host cell pilus
Adeno-associated virus type 2 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Muscles, Neurons, Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 2 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
Integrin α5 β1
Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? Muscles, Neurons, Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 2 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
Laminin receptor(RPSA)
Receptor ubiquitous Muscles, Neurons, Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 2 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
AAVR (KIAA0319L)
Receptor Neurons? Muscles, Neurons, Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 3,8 and 9 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 3,8 and 9 Parvoviridae, Dependoparvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
Laminin receptor(RPSA)
Receptor Ubiquitous Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bovine parvovirus Parvoviridae, Bocavirus ssDNA Non-env Bovine Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins
α2,3 N-linked and O-linked sialic acids

Carbohydrate Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Canine parvovirus Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Dogs Entry VP1, VP2
Transferin receptor (TFRC)

Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes
Monocytes, lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Feline panleukopenia virus Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Feline Entry VP1, VP2
Transferin receptor (TFRC)

Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Monocytes, lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human parvovirus B19 Parvoviridae, Erythrovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2
Globoside?
Glycosphingolipid erythroid progenitor cells, epithelial cells of lung Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human parvovirus B19 Parvoviridae, Erythrovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2
Integrin α5 β1
Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? erythroid progenitor cells, epithelial cells of lung Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Minute virus of mice Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion VP1, VP2
alpha 2,3 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate ? MVMp:oropharynx epithelial cells
MVMi:lymphocytes, endothelial cells
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine circovirus 2 Circoviridae, Circovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion Capsid protein
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine circovirus 2 Circoviridae, Circovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion Capsid protein
chondroitin sulfate B
Carbohydrate ? Lymphocytes, macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Adhesion VP4

JAM-A/F11R
Adhesion molecule epithelial cells biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Adhesion VP8*
Neu5Ac Sialic acids
Carbohydrate ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP4
Integrin α2 β1
Adhesion molecule ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP4
Integrin α4 β1
Adhesion molecule Leukocytes biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry Capsid protein VP4
Integrin αV β3
Adhesion molecule ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Porcine Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Pig Adhesion Outer capsid protein VP8*
Neu5Gc Sialic acids
Carbohydrate ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Adhesion Outer capsid protein VP8*
A Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)
Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Adhesion Outer capsid protein VP4

JAM-A/F11R
Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Outer capsid protein VP4
Integrin α2 β1
Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Outer capsid protein Sigma-1

JAM-A/F11R
, Carbohydrates
Adhesion molecule ? neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Outer capsid protein Sigma-1
Integrin β1
Adhesion molecule ? primary: enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi, secondary: neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Outer capsid protein Sigma-1
RTN4R(NgR1)
Receptor Neurons primary: enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi, secondary: neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Adhesion? Outer capsid protein VP2
Sialic acids?
Carbohydrate ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Adhesion? Outer capsid protein VP2
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Entry? Intermediate capsid protein VP7
Integrin? Adhesion molecule ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bovine coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry Spike glycoprotein
? Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Calves: respiratory epithelium. Adult: intestinal epithelium ?
Bovine viral diarrhea virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry Envelope glycoprotein E1/E2
CD46
Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: respiratory epithelium. Secondary: Lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Norwalk virus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry capsid protein VP1
A/O Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)
Carbohydrate ? epithelial intestinal cells ?
Murine norovirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Mouse Entry Capsid protein VP1
CD300lf, CD300ld
Receptor Tuft cells, Dendritic cells?, immune cells? Tuft cells, Macrophages?, dendritic cells? ?
Feline calicivirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Felines Entry Capsid protein VP1

JAM-A/F11R
Adhesion molecule ? ? ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E1/E2
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Envelope glycoprotein E1/E2
CD46
Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrin αV β3
Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrin αV β6
Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
CD55 (DAF)
Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
ICAM-1
Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus B1 to B6 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3 CXADR
Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Coxsackievirus B1, B3, B5 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF)
Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells, Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E
CLEC4G (LSECtin)
Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells, Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
Mannose receptor(MRC1)
Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
CLEC5A
Lectin Macrophages Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus 1 Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Envelope protein E
Laminin receptor (RPSA)?
Receptor Ubiquitous Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Small envelope protein M
CLDN1
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
Tyro3 (TAM family)
Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
Tyro3 (TAM family)
Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
AXL (TAM family)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
AXL (TAM family)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Yellow fever virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes ?
Encephalomyocarditis virus Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus ss+RNA Non-env Rodent, pig Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Vcam1
Adhesion molecule lymphocytes, monocytes Neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells
Echovirus E5, E6,E7, E9, E11, E13, E25, E29, E30, E31, and E32 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Neonatal Fc receptor
Receptor Leukocytes, neutrophils, Epithelial cells Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Echovirus E1 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrin α2 β1
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Echovirus E8 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrin α2 β1
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Echovirus E6, E7, E11, E12, E20 and E21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
CD55 (DAF)
Complement receptor Ubiquitous epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract??, heart
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion? Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
alpha 2,3 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
CD55 (DAF)
Complement regulator ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Sialic acids
Carbohydrate neurons, lymphocytes? Depends on entry receptor
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
SCARB2
Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression neurons, lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
SELPLG
Adhesion molecule Lymphocytes neurons, lymphocytes? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Foot-and-mouth disease virus Picornaviridae, Aphthovirus ss+RNA Non-env Bovine, sheep Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrins αV &beta 1,3,8,6;
Adhesion molecule epithelial cells of the mouth, lung, and feet Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae, Hepatovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B colorlymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Hepatocytes, epithelium in gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, kidney, lymphocytes? ?
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry ?
LDLR
Receptor Gatrointestinal tract, liver, lung, adrenal glands Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells, liver sinusoidal cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
CLDN1
Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
CD81?
Receptor hemopoietic, endothelial and epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E1 and E2
SCARB1?
Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Spike glycoprotein
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein
ANPEP
Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus OC43 Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein
(alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids
Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells ?
Human parechovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Parechovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Integrin αV β3
Adhesion molecule epithelial cells in respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Major receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV14) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
ICAM-1 Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney Nasopharynx epithelial cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Minor receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV2) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
LDLR family Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract epithelial airway cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhinovirus C Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
CDHR3
Adhesion molecule Nasopharynx, Bronchus, salivary gland Nasopharynx epithelial cells ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Sialic acids
Carbohydrate Epithelial cells, blood cells, ubiquitous epithelial airway cells, Neurons (spinal cord, brain stem), astrocytes ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein VP1, VP2 and VP3
CD55 (DAF)
Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells, Neurons (spinal cord, brain stem), astrocytes ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein VP1, VP2 and VP3
ICAM5
Receptor Brain (but not spinal cord or brain stem) epithelial airway cells, Neurons (spinal cord, brain stem), astrocytes ?
Mouse hepatitis virus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Rodents Entry Spike glycoprotein
Ceacam1
Adhesion molecule Liver and brain Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Poliovirus Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry Capsid protein VP1, VP2 and VP3
Poliovirus receptor (PVR)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial cells in oropharyngeal and enteric tract, neurons Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein
ANPEP
Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion Glycoprotein GP5
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Glycoprotein GP5
SIGLEC1?
Adhesion molecule Macrophage Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Glycoprotein GP2a, Glycoprotein GP4
CD163
Receptor Monocytes Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Glycoprotein GP2a, Glycoprotein GP4
CD151
Adhesion molecule Muscle cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells ans Schwann cells Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E2
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rubella virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E2
MOG
Adhesion molecule Central nervous system, heart, muscle Respiratory tract, .. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E2
Laminin receptor (RPSA)
Receptor Ubiquitous ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human MERS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein
DPP4

Peptidase Muscles, lung, kidney Respiratory tract ?
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein
CLEC4G (LSECtin)

Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN)

Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein
ACE2
peptidase vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein
ANPEP
peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Horse, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein E2
Laminin receptor (RPSA)
Receptor Ubiquitous neuron Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine? through MFGE8 bridging

Integrin αV β3?
Adhesion molecule primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein E
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)

Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin
Nectin 4 (PVRL4)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin
SLAMF1
Receptor Lymphocytes lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein
CLEC4G (LSECtin)

Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
HAVCR1(TIM1)

Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
Tyro3 (TAM family)
Receptor brain? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
AXL (TAM family)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)

Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry in endosome Glycoprotein
NPC1
Receptor Mainly macrophages, dendritic cells, and adrenal gland Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine
HAVCR1(TIM1)

Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Sin nombre virus Bunyaviridae, Hantavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
PCDH1
Adhesion molecule ? Respiratory tract
Andes virus Bunyaviridae, Hantavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
PCDH1
Adhesion molecule ? Respiratory tract
Hantaan virus Bunyaviridae, Hantavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
Integrin β3
Adhesion molecule ? ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Uukuniemi virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Rift fever valley virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry Hemagglutinin HA
Ganglioside GM3
Glycosphingolipid Neurons, Ubiquitous epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry Hemagglutinin HA
CACNA1C (Cav1.2)
Lung, Muscle, Brain, Kidney, Gastrointestinal tract. epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry Hemagglutinin HA
Langerin CD207
Lectin Langerhans cells and immature dendritic cells in skin or mucosa epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry Hemagglutinin HA
NeuAc alpha 2,6 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion Hemagglutinin HA
DC-SIGN

Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion Hemagglutinin HA
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)

Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion Hemagglutinin HA
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion Hemagglutinin HA
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Entry Hemagglutinin HA
Neu5Gc alpha 2,3 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Influenza B virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza B virus ss-RNA Env Human, seals Entry Hemagglutinin HA
alpha 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelial airway cells ?
Influenza C virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza C virus ss-RNA Env Human, swine Entry Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HE
(alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ?
Bovine Influenza D virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza D virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry Hemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein HE
Neu5,9Ac2 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells ?
Guanarito virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex
Transferin receptor (TFRC)

Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Vascular system, multiple organs Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Junin virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC)

Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Glycoprotein G
Glycosaminoglycans
Carbohydrate ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Fusion protein
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Fusion protein
Integrin α5 β3?
Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human parainfluenza 1 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase HN
alpha 2,3 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate ? trachea epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase HN
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase HN
alpha2,6 and 2,3 Sialic acids
Carbohydrate lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex
DC-SIGN
lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex
CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine
Tyro3 (TAM family)
Receptor brain? Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine
AXL (TAM family)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex
LAMP1 (CD107a)
At cell surface: Dendritic cells, NK cells, Activated T lymphocytes, Embryonic cells
In lysosomes: Ubiquitous
Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex
α-dystroglycan
Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex
HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Dendritic cells, liver Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex
α-dystroglycan
Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex
CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine
Tyro3 (TAM family)
Receptor brain? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine
AXL (TAM family)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Machupo virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, Human Entry Glycoprotein complex
Transferin receptor (TFRC)
Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Hemagglutinin
DC-SIGN
lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin
SLAMF1
Receptor Lymphocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin
Nectin 4 (PVRL4)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Cultured Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Cell culture Entry Hemagglutinin
CD46
Complement receptor airway epithelial cells, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
EFNB2
Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
EFNB3
Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
EFNB2
Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G
EFNB3
Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Newcastle disease virus Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus ss-RNA Env Chicken Adhesion Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase HN
2,3 and 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys ?
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G
nAChR? Receptor neurons neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G
NCAM1
Adhesion molecule neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer cells neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Glycoprotein G
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Glycoprotein G
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Rinderpest virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Bovine, ovine, swine Entry Hemagglutinin
SLAMF1
Receptor Lymphocytes lymphocytes ?
Sendai virus Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Rodents Entry Hemagglutinin
Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelium airway cells Fusion with host cell membrane?
or endocytosis?
Vesicular stomatitis virus Rhabdoviridae, Vesiculovirus ss-RNA Env Mammals Entry Glycoprotein
LDLR family
Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Feline leukemia virus A Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC19A2(Pit2)
Transporter ? Lymphocytes? ?
Feline leukemia virus B Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC20A1(Pit1) , SLC20A2(Pit2)

Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney. Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus C Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein
FLVCR1
Transporter Lymphocytes Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus T Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein
FeLIX
endogenous retrovirus surface protein Lymphocytes T-Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus T Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC20A1(Pit1)
Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney T-Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Gibbon ape leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Apes Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC20A1(Pit1)
Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Murine leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Rodent Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC19A2(Pit2)
Transporter ? Lymphocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Endogenous murine type C ecotropic retrovirus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein
Slc7a1(CAT1)
Transporter Skin, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Endogenous xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein
XPR1
Transporter ? ? Fusion with host cell membrane
Endogenous subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus Retroviridae, alpharetrovirus RT Env Chicken Entry Envelope glycoprotein
Tva
Receptor ? Mostly lymphocytes ?
Endogenous subgroup B, D and E avian leukosis and sarcoma virus Retroviridae, alpharetrovirus RT Env Chicken Entry Envelope glycoprotein Tvb
Receptor ? Mostly lymphocytes ?
Bovine leukemia virus Retroviridae, deltaretrovirus RT Env Bovine, Ovine Entry Envelope glycoprotein
AP3D1(BLVR)
? ? B lymphocytes ?
Mouse mammary tumor virus Retroviridae, betaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein
Transferin receptor (TFRC)
Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes primary: macrophages in Peyer s patches of the gastrointestinal tracts, secondary B and T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Spleen necrosis virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Duck Entry Envelope glycoprotein
SLC1A5
Transporter Ubiquitous ? ?
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120
CD4
Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120
DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120
CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120
? Glycosphingolipid ? T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Host ICAM1
LFA+: Integrin αL, β2
Adhesion molecule Lymphocytes T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Entry Envelope gp120
CCR5
Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Entry Envelope gp120
CXCR4
Receptor Lymphocytes T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Simian immunodeficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Apes Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein CD4
Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T-lymphocytes ?
Feline immunodefficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Felidae Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein
TNFRSF4
Receptor Lymphocyte T4-Lymphocyte ?
Feline immunodefficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Felidae ? Envelope glycoprotein
CXCr4
Receptor Lymphocytes T4-Lymphocyte ?
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
SLC10A1(NTCP)
Transporter hepatocyte Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
Mannose receptor(MRC1)
Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Avian hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Avihepadnavirus RT Env Birds Entry Large envelope protein
Carboxypeptidase D
Peptidase ? hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
Heparan sulfate
Carbohydrate ? Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
SLC10A1(NTCP)
Transporter hepatocyte Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein
Mannose receptor(MRC1)
Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis