Virus receptors table

This table lists virus receptors published and having a valid role in vivo. Would any important receptor be missing, please use “contact us” above. The receptors function have been classified as adhesion or entry receptors. The Type indicates the general class of molecule bound by the virus: transporter, polysaccharide, lectin,.. Host expression indicates the tissue expressing the receptor in Host, data mostly recovered in Human Protein Atlas Virus tropism indicates the tissues actually infected by the virus in vivo, this data come form litterature. Entry mode indicates the way the virus cross host cell membrane according to ViralZone data.

Virus Family virion Host function Viral protein Receptor Type Host expression Virus tropism entry mode
Bacteriophage Mu Myoviridae, Mulikevirus dsDNA Non-env Bacteria Adhesion Tail fiber protein S Polysaccharide part of LPS Carbohydrate NA oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Viral genome ejection through host cell envelope
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1 linear sialylated pentasaccharide Carbohydrate ? oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clat.
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Serotonin Receptor (HTR2A) Receptor Neurons in central nervous system oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Ganglioside GD1b Glycosphingolipid ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Attachement VP1 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1 Ganglioside GD1a Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Merkel cell polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? Skin, respiratory and gastro intestinal epitheliums Lipid-mediated endocytosis
Simian virus 40 Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP1 Ganglioside GM1 Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human papillomavirus 16 Papillomaviridae, Alphapapillomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human entry L1 Integrin alpha6 ITGA6 Adhesion molecule Bronchial epithelial cells Genital mucosa Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1(PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD TNFRSF14 (HVEM) Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gH/gL Integrin αVβ6 Adhesion molecule ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD TNFRSF14 (HVEM) Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in sensory ganglia Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gE Insulinase (IDE) Peptidase neurons Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in sensory ganglia Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Adhesion gB gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gD HLA MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gH/gL Integrin α4β1 Adhesion molecule Leukocytes epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-4 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gD HLA MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry gD Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gp350 CR1 Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gp350 CR2 Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gp42 HLA-DRB1 MHC-I B lymphocytes B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry BMRF2 Integrin β1 Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gH/gL Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gH/gL Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gB Integrin β1EGFR Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gQ1/gQ2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gQ1/gQ2 TNFRSF4 Receptor Lymphocytes T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? CD4 Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gB Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule ? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB /gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine ? ? ? dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion A27D8H3 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion A26 Laminin Extracellular matrix dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Adenovirus subgroup B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD80 Adhesion molecule B cells, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus subgroup B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD86 Adhesion molecule B lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus subgroup B2 and Ad3 Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous ? ?
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion Fiber protein CXADR Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Penton protein Integrin αVβ5? Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Enterobacteria phage PhiX174 Microviridae,
Microvirus
ssDNA Non-env Bacteria Adhesion Spike G protein LPS? polysaccharide NA NA Viral attachment to host cell pilus
Adeno-associated virus type 2,3,8 and 9 Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adeno-associated virus type 2,3,8 and 9 Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins Laminin receptor(RPSA) Receptor ubiquitous Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bovine parvovirus Parvoviridae, Bocavirus ssDNA Non-env Bovine Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins α2,3 N-linked and O-linked sialic acids Carbohydrate Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Canine parvovirus Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Dogs Entry VP1, VP2 Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Monocytes, lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Feline panleukopenia virus Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Feline Entry VP1, VP2 Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Monocytes, lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human parvovirus B19 Parvoviridae, Erythrovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 Globoside? Glycosphingolipid erythroid progenitor cells, epithelial cells of lung < Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human parvovirus B19 Parvoviridae, Erythrovirus ssDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 Integrin α5 β1 Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? erythroid progenitor cells, epithelial cells of lung Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Minute virus of mice Parvoviridae, Parvovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion VP1, VP2 alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? MVMp:oropharynx epithelial cells
MVMi:lymphocytes, endothelial cells
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine circovirus 2 Circoviridae, Circovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion Capsid protein Heparan sulfate polysaccharide ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine circovirus 2 Circoviridae, Circovirus ssDNA Non-env Rodent Adhesion Capsid protein chondroitin sulfate B polysaccharide ? Lymphocytes, macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Adhesion VP4
JAM-A/F11R
Adhesion molecule epithelial cells biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Adhesion VP8* Neu5Ac Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP4 Integrin α2β1 Adhesion molecule ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP4 Integrin α4 β1 Adhesion molecule Leukocytes biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Rhesus Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP4 Integrin αV β3 Adhesion molecule ? biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocytes) Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Porcine Rotavirus Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Pig Adhesion VP8* Neu5Gc Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP8* A Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP4 JAM-A/F11R Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human Rotavirus strain Wa Reoviridae, Rotavirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry VP4 Integrin α2β1 Adhesion molecule ? enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Sigma-1 JAM-A/F11R , Carbohydrates Adhesion molecule ? neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Sigma-1 Integrin β1 Adhesion molecule ? primary: enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi, secondary: neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mammalian reovirus Reoviridae, Orthoreovirus dsRNA Non-env Human Entry Sigma-1 RTN4R(NgR1) Receptor Neurons primary: enterocytes at the top of intestinal villi, secondary: neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Adhesion? Outer capsid protein VP2 Sialic acids? Carbohydrate ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Adhesion? Outer capsid protein VP2 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bluetongue virus Reoviridae, Orbivirus dsRNA Non-env Bovine, goat, sheep, bitting midges Entry? Intermediate capsid protein VP7 Integrin? Adhesion molecule ? Mammals primary: lymphocytes, secondary: endothelial cells; Insect: gut Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bovine coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry Spike glycoprotein ? Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Calves: respiratory epithelium. Adult: intestinal epithelium ?
Bovine viral diarrhea virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry E1/E2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: respiratory epithelium. Secondary: Lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Norwalk virus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry capsid protein VP1 A/O Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) Carbohydrate ? epithelial intestinal cells ?
Murine norovirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Mouse Entry capsid protein VP1 CD300lf, CD300ld Receptor Tuft cells , Dendritic cells?, immune cells? Tuft cells , Macrophages?, dendritic cells? ?
Feline calicivirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Felines Entry capsid protein VP1 JAM-A/F11R Adhesion molecule ? ? ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion E1/E2 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry E1/E2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ6 Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 ICAM-1 Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus B1 to B6 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CXADR Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Coxsackievirus B1, B3, B5 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells , Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E CLEC4G (LSECtin) Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells , Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Mannose receptor(MRC1) Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E CLEC5A Lectin Macrophages Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus 1 Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Envelope protein E Laminin receptor (RPSA)? Receptor Ubiquitous Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Small envelope protein M CLDN1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Yellow fever virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes ?
Encephalomyocarditis virus Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus ss+RNA Non-env Rodent, pig Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Vcam1 Adhesion molecule lymphocytes, monocytes Neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells
Echovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Echovirus 8 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Echovirus 6, 7, 11, 12, 20 and 21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement receptor Ubiquitous epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract??, heart
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion? VP1, VP2 and VP3 alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate neurons, lymphocytes? Depends on entry receptor
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 SCARB2 Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression neurons, lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 SELPLG Adhesion molecule Lymphocytes neurons, lymphocytes? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Foot-and-mouth disease virus Picornaviridae, Aphthovirus ss+RNA Non-env Bovine, sheep Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrins αV β Adhesion molecule epithelial cells of the mouth, lung, and feet Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae, Hepatovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 HAVCR1(TIM1) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Hepatocytes, epithelium in gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, kidney, lymphocytes? ?
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry ? LDLR Receptor Gatrointestinal tract, liver, lung, adrenal glands Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells, liver sinusoidal cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins CLDN1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins CD81? Receptor hemopoietic, endothelial and epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins SCARB1? Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus OC43 Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein (alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells ?
Human parechovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Parechovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule epitelial cells in respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion E CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Major receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV14) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 ICAM-1 Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney Nasopharynx epithelial cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Minor receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV2) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 LDLR family Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract epithelial airway cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhinovirus C Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CDHR3 Adhesion molecule Nasopharynx, Bronchus, salivary gland Nasopharynx epithelial cells ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells ?
Mouse hepatitis virus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Rodents Entry Spike glycoprotein Ceacam1 Adhesion molecule Liver and brain Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Poliovirus Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial cells in oropharyngeal and enteric tract, neurons Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion GP5 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP5 SIGLEC1? Adhesion molecule Macrophage Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP2a, GP4 CD163 Receptor Monocytes Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP2a, GP4 CD151 Adhesion molecule Muscle cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells ans Schwann cells Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Adhesion E2 glycoprotein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rubella virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Human Entry E2 glycoprotein MOG Adhesion molecule Central nervous system, heart, muscle Respiratory tract, .. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Entry E2 glycoprotein Laminin receptor (RPSA) Receptor Ubiquitous ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human MERS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein DPP4
Peptidase Muscles, lung, kidney Respiratory tract ?
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4G (LSECtin)
Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein ACE2 peptidase vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Horse, Human Entry E2 glycoprotein Laminin receptor (RPSA) Receptor Ubiquitous neuron Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine? through MFGE8 bridging Integrin αVβ3? Adhesion molecule primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope protein E CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin Nectin 4 (PVRL4) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4G (LSECtin)
Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry in endosome Glycoprotein NPC1 Receptor Mainly macrophages, dendritic cells, and adrenal gland Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Hantaan virus Bunyaviridae, Hantavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry Glycoprotein G Integrin β3 Adhesion molecule ? ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Uukuniemi virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Rift fever valley virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA CACNA1C (Cav1.2) Lung, Muscle, Brain, Kidney, Gastrointestinal tract. epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA Langerin CD207 Lectin Langerhans cells and immature dendritic cells in skin or mucosa epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA NeuAc alpha 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion HA DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion HA CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion HA DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion HA CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Entry HA NeuGc alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Influenza B virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza B virus ss-RNA Env Human, seals Entry HA alpha 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelial airway cells ?
Influenza C virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza C virus ss-RNA Env Human, swine Entry HE (alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ?
Bovine Influenza D virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza D virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HEF Neu5,9Ac2 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells ?
Guanarito virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Vascular system, multiple organs Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Junin virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Glycoprotein Glycosaminoglycans polysaccharide ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Fusion protein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Fusion protein integrin α5β3? Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human parainfluenza 1 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry HN alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? trachea epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion HN Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry HN alpha2,6 and 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex DC-SIGN lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex LAMP1 (CD107a) At cell surface: Dendritic cells, NK cells, Activated T lymphocytes, Embryonic cells
In lysosomes: Ubiquitous
Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex α-dystroglycan Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex α-dystroglycan Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Machupo virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, Human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Hemagglutinin DC-SIGN lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin Nectin 4 (PVRL4) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Cultured Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Cell culture Entry Hemagglutinin CD46 Complement receptor airway epithelial cells, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB2 Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB3 Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB2 Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB3 Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Newcastle disease virus Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus ss-RNA Env Chicken Adhesion HN 2,3 and 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys ?
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G nAChR? Receptor neurons neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G NCAM1 Adhesion molecule neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer cells neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Major surface glycoprotein G DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Major surface glycoprotein G Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Rinderpest virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Bovine, ovine, swine Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes lymphocytes ?
Sendai virus Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Rodents Entry Hemagglutinin Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelium airway cells Fusion with host cell membrane?
or endocytosis?
Vesicular stomatitis virus Rhabdoviridae, Vesiculovirus ss-RNA Env Mammals Entry Glycoprotein LDLR family Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Feline leukemia virus A Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC19A2(Pit2) Transporter ? Lymphocytes? ?
Feline leukemia virus B Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC20A1(Pit1), SLC20A2(Pit2) Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney. Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus C Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein FLVCR1 Transporter Lymphocytes Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus T Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein FeLIX endogenous retrovirus surface protein Lymphocytes T-Lymphocytes? Fusion with host cell membrane
Feline leukemia virus T Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Felidae Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC20A1(Pit1) Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney T-Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Gibbon ape leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Apes Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC20A1(Pit1) Transporter Muscle. placenta, heart, liver and kidney Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Murine leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Rodent Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC19A2(Pit2) Transporter ? Lymphocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Endogenous murine type C ecotropic retrovirus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein Slc7a1(CAT1) Transporter Skin, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Endogenous xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein XPR1 Transporter ? ? Fusion with host cell membrane
Endogenous subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus Retroviridae, alpharetrovirus RT Env Chicken Entry Envelope glycoprotein Tva Receptor ? Mostly lymphocytes ?
Endogenous subgroup B, D and E avian leukosis and sarcoma virus Retroviridae, alpharetrovirus RT Env Chicken Entry Envelope glycoprotein Tvb Receptor ? Mostly lymphocytes ?
Bovine leukemia virus Retroviridae, deltaretrovirus RT Env Bovine, Ovine Entry Envelope glycoprotein Blvr ? ? B lymphocytes ?
Mouse mammary tumor virus Retroviridae, betaretrovirus RT Env Mouse Entry Envelope glycoprotein Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes primary: macrophages in Peyer s patches of the gastrointestinal tracts, secondary B and T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Spleen necrosis virus Retroviridae, gammaretrovirus RT Env Duck Entry Envelope glycoprotein SLC1A5 Transporter Ubiquitous ? ?
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120 CD4 Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120 DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120 CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Envelope gp120 ? Glycosphingolipid ? T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Adhesion Host ICAM1 LFA1 Adhesion molecule Lymphocytes T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Entry Envelope gp120 CCr5 Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
HIV-1 Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Human Entry Envelope gp120 CXCR4 Receptor Lymphocytes T-lymphocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Simian immunodeficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Apes Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein CD4 Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T lymphocytes ?
Feline immunodefficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Felidae Adhesion Envelope glycoprotein TNFRSF4 Receptor Lymphocyte T4 Lymphocyte ?
Feline immunodefficiency virus Retroviridae, lentivirus RT Env Felidae ? Envelope glycoprotein CXCr4 Receptor Lymphocytes T4 Lymphocyte ?
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein SLC10A1(NTCP) Transporter hepatocyte Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Orthohepadnavirus RT Env Human Adhesion Large envelope protein Mannose receptor(MRC1) Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Avian hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae, Avihepadnavirus RT Env Birds Entry Large envelope protein Carboxypeptidase D Peptidase ? hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion HBV Large envelope protein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion HBV Large envelope protein SLC10A1(NTCP) Transporter hepatocyte Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis D virus Deltavirus cssRNA Env Human Adhesion HBV Large envelope protein Mannose receptor(MRC1) Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Hepatocyte Caveolin-mediated endocytosis