Non-enveloped, spherical, about 30nm in diameter, pseudo T=3 icosahedral capsid surrounding the naked RNA genome. The capsid consists of a densely-packed icosahedral arrangement of 60 protomers, each consisting of 4 polypeptides, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4. VP4 is located on the internal side of the capsid.
Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of about 8.8 kb, polyadenylated, composed of a two ORFs separated by an intergenic region. Viral genomic RNA has a viral protein (VPg) at its 5' end instead of a methylated nucleotide cap structure. Both ORFs are transcribed from upstream internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and encode two polyproteins. The P1 region encodes the structural polypeptides. The P2 and P3 regions encode the nonstructural proteins associated with replication. Encodes a unique protease 3C.
The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. The IRES allow direct translation of the two polyproteins. The polyproteins are initially processed into various precursor and mature proteins to yield the structural proteins, replicase, VPg, and a number of proteins that modify the host cell, ultimately leading to cell lysis.
- RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [RdRp]
- VPG-type capping [VPg]
- NTPase-helicase [2C]
- Polyprotein major protease (Peptidase C3) [3Cpro]
- Attachement of the virus to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
- The capsid undergoes a conformational change and releases VP4 that opens a pore in the host endosomal membrane and the viral genomic RNA penetrates into the host cell cytoplasm.
- VPg is removed from the viral RNA, which is then translated into a processed polyprotein.
- Replication occurs in viral factories made of membrane vesicles derived from the ER. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
- The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
- New genomic RNA is believed to be packaged into preassembled procapsids.
- Cell lysis and virus release.
- Maturation of provirions by an unknown host protease.