Inhibition of eukaryotic host transcription initiation by virus

The host RNA polymerase II transcribes messenger RNAs with help of general initiation factors namely TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH. They assemble on promoter DNA with polymerase II, creating a large multiprotein-DNA complex that supports efficient transcription.

Several viruses have evolved strategies to interfere with host transcription initiation factors. Inhibiting host transcription eventually leads to shutoff of host proteins expression and gives viruses transcripts a competitive edge for access to the cellular translation machinery. Preventing the expression of host proteins is also a strategy to counteract the antiviral response.The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is inhibited by HPV16 E7 protein or by adenovirus E1A protein, and it is cleaved by the poliovirus 3C protease. Thogoto virus ML protein interacts with host TFIIB and strongly inhibits IRF3 and NF-kappaB-regulated promoters. Varicella virus IE63 targets TFIIE, while Rift Valley fever virus targets TFIIH complex, showing the different strategies viruses use to downregulate host transcription.

Viruses inhibiting transcription initiation:

Family Virus Viral protein strategy of transcription initiation inhibition references
Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus Thogoto virus ML Inhibition of TFIIB
Papillomaviridae, alphapapillomavirus HPV16 E7 Inhibition of TBP
Picornaviridae Poliovirus 3C Cleavage of TBP
Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus Rift valley fever virus NSs Downregulates TFIIH subunit p62
Herpesviridae Varicella virus IE63 Disruption of the transcriptional pre-initiation complex
Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus Adenovirus E1A Inhibition of TBP

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

15 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

2 entries

Early E1A protein (Early E1A 32 kDa protein)

Select_allDeselect_all
E1A_ADE02
Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain
E1A_ADE05
Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5)

2 entries

Transcriptional regulator ICP22 homolog (Immediate-early protein 63) (IE63) (Transcriptional regulator IE63)

Select_allDeselect_all
ICP22_VZVD
Varicella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain
ICP22_VZVO
Varicella-zoster virus (strain Oka vaccine) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3)

Transcriptional regulator ICP22 homolog (Immediate-early protein 63) (IE63) (Transcriptional transactivator IE63)

5 entries

Non-structural protein NS-S

Select_allDeselect_all
NSS_BUNL8
Bunyavirus La Crosse (isolate Human/United States/L78/1978) reference strain
NSS_BUNLC
Bunyavirus La Crosse reference strain
NSS_RVFVZ
Rift valley fever virus (strain ZH-548 M12) (RVFV) reference strain

Non-structural protein S (NSs)

NSS_BUNGE
Bunyavirus germiston
NSS_BUNSH
Bunyavirus snowshoe hare

5 entries

Genome polyprotein

Select_allDeselect_all
POLG_POL1S
Poliovirus type 1 (strain Sabin)
POLG_POL2L
Poliovirus type 2 (strain Lansing)
POLG_POL2W
Poliovirus type 2 (strain W-2)
POLG_POL32
Poliovirus type 3 (strain 23127)
POLG_POL3L
Poliovirus type 3 (strains P3/Leon/37 and P3/Leon 12A[1]B)

1 entry

RNAP inhibitory protein (RIP)

RIP_ATV
Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) reference strain