Inhibition of host caspases by virus

Apoptosis (or programmed cell death) is a controlled process leading to cell death characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, and compartmentalization of the dead cells to apoptotic bodies. The host immune system uses apoptosis to eliminate cells infected by pathogens. Apoptosis of infected cells is caused either by cytolytic cells activated during the anti-viral response, or directly by viral infection. Host caspases, constitute an evolutionary conserved family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that are at the heart of the apoptotic machinery.

E8 UL36 spi2 F1L


Playing a central role in cell death, caspases are targeted by different viruses in the aim of prolonging cell survival. For instance, viral IAPs (inhibitors of apoptosis) interact with and inhibit the processed active caspases, either by blocking the catalytic part of the enzymes, or through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity from RING domains, targeting caspases for rapid degradation via proteasome. Baculoviruses, asfiviruses or irridescent viruses encode such IAPs. Another class of caspase inhibitors frequently found among poxviruses include the serine proteinase inhibitors serpins: CrmA/SPI-2. Crma targets cysteine proteases such as host Caspase 1 and Caspase 8.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

27 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

1 entry

African swine fever virus (isolate Tick/Malawi/Lil 20-1/1983) (ASFV) reference strain

IAP_ASFM2 Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

1 entry

African swine fever virus (isolate Tick/South Africa/Pretoriuskop Pr4/1996) (ASFV) reference strain

IAP_ASFP4 Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

1 entry

African swine fever virus (strain Badajoz 1971 Vero-adapted) (Ba71V) (ASFV) reference strain

IAP_ASFB7 Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

1 entry

Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) reference strain

P35_NPVAC Early 35 kDa protein (Apoptosis-preventing protein) (p35)

1 entry

Bovine adenovirus B serotype 3 (BAdV-3) (Mastadenovirus bos3) reference strain

E3145_ADEB3 Early E3 14.5 kDa protein

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain

E3145_ADE02 Early 3 14.7 kDa protein (E3-14.7k)

1 entry

Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

VICA_HCMVM Viral inhibitor of caspase-8-induced apoptosis (vICA)

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain

RIR1_HHV11 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase ...

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain

RIR1_HHV2H Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase ...

1 entry

Invertebrate iridescent virus 3 (IIV-3) (Mosquito iridescent virus) reference strain

VF193_IIV3 Putative apoptosis inhibitor 021L

1 entry

Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Chilo iridescent virus) reference strain

VF193_IIV6 Apoptosis inhibitor 193R

1 entry

Myxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain

SPI2_MYXVL Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

1 entry

Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

SPI2_VACCW Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

1 entry

Varicella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain

TRX1_VZVD Triplex capsid protein 1

1 entry

Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain

SPI2_VAR67 Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

1 entry

African swine fever virus (isolate Pig/Kenya/KEN-50/1950) (ASFV)

IAP_ASFK5 Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

1 entry

African swine fever virus (isolate Warthog/Namibia/Wart80/1980) (ASFV)

IAP_ASFWA Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

1 entry

Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV)

VP35_NPVBM Early 35 kDa protein (Apoptosis-preventing protein) (p35)

1 entry

Cowpox virus (strain Brighton Red) (CPV)

SPI2_CWPXB Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2) (Cytokine response modifier protein A) ...

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 3 (HAdV-3) (Human adenovirus 3)

E3145_ADE03 Early E3 15.3 kDa protein

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 7 (HAdV-7) (Human adenovirus 7)

E3145_ADE07 Early E3 15.3 kDa protein

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5)

E3145_ADE05 Early E3 14.5 kDa protein

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 6 (HAdV-6) (Human adenovirus 6)

E3145_ADE06 Early E3B 14 kDa protein

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 2 (strain 333) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2)

RIR1_HHV23 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) (Ribonucleotide reductase ...

1 entry

Myxoma virus (strain Uriarra) (MYXV)

SPI2_MYXVU Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

1 entry

Rabbitpox virus (strain Utrecht) (RPV)

SPI2_RABPU Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

1 entry

Variola virus

SPI2_VARV Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)