The signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT2(M97934:9606) protein is a cytoplasmic latent transcription factor that becomes activated by various extracellular stimuli, including cytokines and growth factors that bind to specific cell surface receptors. The activation of STAT2(M97934:9606) in IFN-α/β signaling pathways is largely mediated by phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine and serine residues in the C-terminal region. IFN-α/β stimulates heterodimerization of STAT1(M97935:9606) and STAT2(M97934:9606), leading to STAT2(M97934:9606) activation and nuclear localization.
Many viruses modulate the interferon mediated response by acting on STAT2(M97934:9606). This regulation occurs in many different ways. NS5 protein from Dengue virus mediates STAT2(M97934:9606) binding and degradation. Respiratory syncytial virus NS1(O42083) protein degrades STAT2(M97934:9606) by using the elongin-cullin E3 Ligase. Nipah virus V(Q997F2) protein instead prevents STAT2(M97934:9606) activation through direct binding but without targeting it to degradation.