Degradation of host capsule during virus entry

Many cells are protected by a network of polysaccharides called glycocalyx. The glycocalyx (400 nm or more) layer protects the cell from hostile environments, and prevents viruses from reaching their entry receptor at the cell surface .
Bacterial viruses infecting encapsulated cell carry an exopolysaccharide (EPS) degrading enzymes as tailspike proteins in order to digest this sugar coat and reach the outer membrane or the peptidoglycan layer . The capsule can be composed of various EPS such as alginates, polysialic acids (PSAs), and hyaluronic acid (HA).

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Virus Family Host bacteria Surface component type Phage degrading enzyme ref.
Phage φ92 Myoviridae E.coli (K1, K5, K92), Salmonella strains PSA, capsular Endosialidase gp143
Phage K1A Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1E Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1F Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage 63D Siphoviridae - PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1-5 Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage CUS-3 Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage PT-6 unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate, capsular Alginate lyase
Phage H4489A unclassified Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular Hyaluronidase
Phage 370.1 Siphoviridae Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular HylP1, HylP2, HylP3
Phage H10403 unclassified Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular Hyalurono- glucosaminidase
Phage AF Podoviridae Pseudomonas putida EPS, capsular EPS hydrolase

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

4 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

2 entries

Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) (Endo-N) (EC 3.2.1.129) (Endo-alpha-sialidase) (EndoNE)

Select_allDeselect_all
FIBER_BPK1F
Escherichia phage K1F (Bacteriophage K1F) reference strain

Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) (Endo-N) (EC 3.2.1.129) (Endo-alpha-sialidase) (EndoNF) (G102)

FIBER_BPK1E
Escherichia phage K1E (Bacteriophage K1E)

1 entry

Hyaluronoglucosaminidase (Hyaluronidase) (EC 3.2.1.35)

HYLP1_BPH44
Streptococcus pyogenes phage H4489A

1 entry

Hyaluronoglucosaminidase (Hyaluronidase) (EC 3.2.1.35)

HYLP2_BPH45
Streptococcus pyogenes phage H10403