Hantaviridae

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical. Diameter from 80 to 120nm.

GENOME

Segmented Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, L segment is between 6.8 and 12 kb, M segment between 3.2 and 4.9 kb and S segment between 1 and 3 kb.
Encodes for four to six proteins. Some hantaviruses also encode a NSs protein on their S segment.

GENE EXPRESSION

The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L) binds to a promoter on each encapsidated segment, and transcribes the mRNA. These are capped by L protein during synthesis using cap snatching . Transcription is terminated by a strong hairpin sequence at the end of each gene. Puumala virus expressed an additional NSs by leaky scanning in the NS gene.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Virus attaches to host receptors though Gn-Gc glycoprotein dimer, and is endocytosed into vesicles in the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; ribonucleocapsid segments are released in the cytoplasm.
  3. Transcription, viral mRNAs are capped in the cytoplasm.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. The ribonucleocapsids buds at Golgi apparatus, releasing the virion by exocytosis.

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