Virus Family virion Host function Viral protein Receptor Type Host expression Virus tropism entry mode
Bovine coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry Spike glycoprotein ? Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Calves: respiratory epithelium. Adult: intestinal epithelium ?
Bovine viral diarrhea virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine Entry E1/E2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: respiratory epithelium. Secondary: Lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Norwalk virus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry capsid protein VP1 A/O Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) Carbohydrate ? epithelial intestinal cells ?
Murine norovirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Mouse Entry capsid protein VP1 CD300lf, CD300ld Receptor Tuft cells , Dendritic cells?, immune cells? Tuft cells , Macrophages?, dendritic cells? ?
Feline calicivirus Caliciviridae, Norovirus ss+RNA Env Felines Entry capsid protein VP1 JAM-A/F11R Adhesion molecule ? ? ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion E1/E2 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae, Pestivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry E1/E2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous Primary: Mainly Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum, secondary: most organs ?
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ6 Adhesion molecule ? epithelial airway cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 ICAM-1 Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney epithelial airway cells ?
Coxsackievirus B1 to B6 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CXADR Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Coxsackievirus B1, B3, B5 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta Brain, heart, pancreas Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells , Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Entry? Envelope protein E CLEC4G (LSECtin) Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells , Neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Mannose receptor(MRC1) Receptor Macrophages, dendritic cells, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E CLEC5A Lectin Macrophages Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus 1 Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Envelope protein E Laminin receptor (RPSA)? Receptor Ubiquitous Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry Small envelope protein M CLDN1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Zika virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes ?
Dengue virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Alternative Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, platelets Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or Macropinocytosis
Yellow fever virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Human, mosquitoes Adhesion Envelope protein E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes ?
Encephalomyocarditis virus Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus ss+RNA Non-env Rodent, pig Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Vcam1 Adhesion molecule lymphocytes, monocytes Neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells
Echovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Echovirus 8 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Echovirus 6, 7, 11, 12, 20 and 21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement receptor Ubiquitous epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract??, heart
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion? VP1, VP2 and VP3 alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator ? epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract?? ?
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate neurons, lymphocytes? Depends on entry receptor
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 SCARB2 Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression neurons, lymphocytes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 SELPLG Adhesion molecule Lymphocytes neurons, lymphocytes? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Foot-and-mouth disease virus Picornaviridae, Aphthovirus ss+RNA Non-env Bovine, sheep Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrins αV β Adhesion molecule epithelial cells of the mouth, lung, and feet Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae, Hepatovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 HAVCR1(TIM1) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Hepatocytes, epithelium in gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, kidney, lymphocytes? ?
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry ? LDLR Receptor Gatrointestinal tract, liver, lung, adrenal glands Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells, liver sinusoidal cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion E1 and E2 proteins CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins CLDN1 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins CD81? Receptor hemopoietic, endothelial and epithelial cells Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry E1 and E2 proteins SCARB1? Endosomal molecule Ubiquitous cytoplasmic expression Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial airway cells, macrophages Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus OC43 Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human Entry Spike glycoprotein (alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells ?
Human parechovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Parechovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule epitelial cells in respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion E Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Bovine, bird, horse, swine, mosquitoes and Human Adhesion E CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Dendritic cells, neurons Clathrin independent endocytosis
Major receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV14) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 ICAM-1 Adhesion molecule Lungs, Lymphoid tissues, Kidney Nasopharynx epithelial cells Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Minor receptor group, rhinovirus A-B (e.g.HRV2) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 LDLR family Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract epithelial airway cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhinovirus C Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 CDHR3 Adhesion molecule Nasopharynx, Bronchus, salivary gland Nasopharynx epithelial cells ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells ?
Enterovirus D68 (Rhinovirus 87) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 (DAF) Complement regulator Lung, ovary, placenta epithelial airway cells ?
Mouse hepatitis virus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Rodents Entry Spike glycoprotein Ceacam1 Adhesion molecule Liver and brain Hepatocytes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Poliovirus Picornaviridae, Enterovirus ss+RNA Non-env Human Entry VP1, VP2 and VP3 Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial cells in oropharyngeal and enteric tract, neurons Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP Peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Adhesion GP5 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP5 SIGLEC1? Adhesion molecule Macrophage Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP2a, GP4 CD163 Receptor Monocytes Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry GP2a, GP4 CD151 Adhesion molecule Muscle cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells ans Schwann cells Macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Adhesion E2 glycoprotein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rubella virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Human Entry E2 glycoprotein MOG Adhesion molecule Central nervous system, heart, muscle Respiratory tract, .. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Mosquitoes, Bird, Human Entry E2 glycoprotein Laminin receptor (RPSA) Receptor Ubiquitous ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human MERS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein DPP4
Peptidase Muscles, lung, kidney Respiratory tract ?
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4G (LSECtin)
Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Adhesion Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human SARS Coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Human, bats, mammals Entry Spike glycoprotein ACE2 peptidase vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus ss+RNA Env Swine Entry Spike glycoprotein ANPEP peptidase intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, liver epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract ?
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
ss+RNA Env Horse, Human Entry E2 glycoprotein Laminin receptor (RPSA) Receptor Ubiquitous neuron Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine? through MFGE8 bridging Integrin αVβ3? Adhesion molecule primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope protein E DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ss+RNA Env Birds, mosquitoes, Human Adhesion Envelope protein E CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node primary: Langerhans dendritic cells, secondary: Lymphocytes, kidney, spleen and liver Clathrin-mediated endocytosis