Virus Family virion Host function Viral protein Receptor Type Host expression Virus tropism entry mode
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1 linear sialylated pentasaccharide Carbohydrate ? oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clat.
Human JC polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Serotonin Receptor (HTR2A) Receptor Neurons in central nervous system oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion VP1 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Ganglioside GD1b Glycosphingolipid ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
BK virus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? Salivary gland cells? kidney epithelial cells? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Attachement VP1 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1 Ganglioside GD1a Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse polyomavirus mPy Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Rodent Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Merkel cell polyomavirus Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Entry VP1 Ganglioside GT1b Glycosphingolipid ? Skin, respiratory and gastro intestinal epitheliums Lipid-mediated endocytosis
Simian virus 40 Polyomaviridae, Polyomavirus dsDNA Non-env Monkeys Entry VP1 Ganglioside GM1 Glycosphingolipid ? ? Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human papillomavirus 16 Papillomaviridae, Alphapapillomavirus dsDNA Non-env Human entry L1 Integrin alpha6 ITGA6 Adhesion molecule Bronchial epithelial cells Genital mucosa Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1(PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD TNFRSF14 (HVEM) Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 1 Herpesviridae Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gH/gL Integrin αVβ6 Adhesion molecule ? neurons, epithelial mucosal cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD TNFRSF14 (HVEM) Receptor Lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons epithelial mucosal cells of genital area, latency in sacral ganglion (neurons) Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in sensory ganglia Fusion with host cell membrane
Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3) Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gE Insulinase (IDE) Peptidase neurons Starts in upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosal cell, then T lymphoid cells, reaching liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract. latency in sensory ganglia Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Adhesion gB gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gD HLA MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-1 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gH/gL Integrin α4β1 Adhesion molecule Leukocytes epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Equine herpesvirus-4 Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Horses Entry gD HLA MHC-I ? epithelium and macrophages in respiratory tract, central nervous system, adrenal and thyroid glands Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Adhesion gB/gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry gD Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Bovine herpesvirus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Bovine Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gp350 CR1 Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gp350 CR2 Complement regulator erythrocytes, lymphocytes, glomerular podocytes, and dendritic cells B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gp42 HLA-DRB1 MHC-I B lymphocytes B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Herpesviridae, Lymphocryptovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry BMRF2 Integrin β1 Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gH/gL Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin Liver sinusoidal cells and lymph nodes Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gH/gL Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gB Integrin β1EGFR Adhesion molecule Beta1: Salivary gland? Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and megacaryocyte Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gQ1/gQ2 CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gQ1/gQ2 TNFRSF4 Receptor Lymphocytes T Lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Herpesviridae, Roseolovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? CD4 Receptor T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells T lymphocytes Fusion with host cell membrane
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion ? Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Kaposi Sarcoma virus (HHV-8) Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gB Integrin αVβ3 Adhesion molecule ? B lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion gB /gC Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Poliovirus receptor (PVR) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 1 (PVRL1)
Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Pseudorabies virus Herpesviridae, Varicellovirus dsDNA Env Human Entry gD Nectin 2 (PVRL2) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons neurons, nasal and oral epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine ? ? ? dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion A27D8H3 Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Vaccinia virus Poxviridae, Orthopoxvirus dsDNA Env Human Adhesion A26 Laminin Extracellular matrix dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, activated T lymphocytes Macropinocytosis
Adenovirus subgroup B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD80 Adhesion molecule B cells, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus subgroup B Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD86 Adhesion molecule B lymphocytes, monocytes epithelial cells ?
Adenovirus subgroup B2 and Ad3 Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Fiber protein CD46 Receptor Ubiquitous ? ?
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Adhesion Fiber protein CXADR Adhesion molecule Epithelial and endothial cell, heart, brain epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Adenovirus type C Adenoviridae, Mastadenovirus dsDNA Non-env Human Entry Penton protein Integrin αVβ5? Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells in pharynx, lung, cornea Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Bacteriophage Mu Myoviridae, Mulikevirus dsDNA Non-env Bacteria Adhesion Tail fiber protein S Polysaccharide part of LPS Carbohydrate NA oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, B lymphocytes, and kidney epithelial cells Viral genome ejection through host cell envelope