Virus Family virion Host function Viral protein Receptor Type Host expression Virus tropism entry mode
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin Nectin 4 (PVRL4) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Canine distemper virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Dogs Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues ?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4G (LSECtin)
Lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis?
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Ebolavirus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry in endosome Glycoprotein NPC1 Receptor Mainly macrophages, dendritic cells, and adrenal gland Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: hepatocytes, kidney cells. splenocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Adhesion Glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Marburg virus Filoviridae, Filovirus ss-RNA Env Bats, mammals, human Entry virion membrane phosphatidylserine HAVCR1(TIM1)
Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, mast cells, B lymphocytes, activated CD4+ cells, kidney, hepatocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, macrophages. Secondary: endothelial and epithelial cells Macropinocytosis
Hantaan virus Bunyaviridae, Hantavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry Glycoprotein G Integrin β3 Adhesion molecule ? ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Uukuniemi virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Rift fever valley virus Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus ss-RNA Env Mosquitoes, cattle, Human Entry Envelope glycoprotein DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells Primary: dendritic cells ?
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA CACNA1C (Cav1.2) Lung, Muscle, Brain, Kidney, Gastrointestinal tract. epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA Langerin CD207 Lectin Langerhans cells and immature dendritic cells in skin or mucosa epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HA NeuAc alpha 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion HA DC-SIGN
Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Human Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Adhesion HA CLEC4M(L-SIGN)
Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial airway cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion HA DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Adhesion HA CLEC4M(L-SIGN) Lectin liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and lymph node epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Avian Influenza A virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus ss-RNA Env Birds, Swine, flies? Entry HA NeuGc alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract epithelial gastrointestinal cells, myotubes? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis [any cells] and Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis [in nonpolarized cells]
Macropinocytosis [filamentous virion]
Influenza B virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza B virus ss-RNA Env Human, seals Entry HA alpha 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelial airway cells ?
Influenza C virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza C virus ss-RNA Env Human, swine Entry HE (alpha 2,3 or 2,6) 9-O-acetylated Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? ?
Bovine Influenza D virus Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza D virus ss-RNA Env Human, Swine Entry HEF Neu5,9Ac2 Sialic acids Carbohydrate epithelial airway cells epithelial airway cells ?
Guanarito virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes Vascular system, multiple organs Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Junin virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes macrophages Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Glycoprotein Glycosaminoglycans polysaccharide ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Fusion protein Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human metapneumovirus Paramyxoviridae, metapneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Fusion protein integrin α5β3? Adhesion molecule ? epithelial cells of lung ?
Human parainfluenza 1 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry HN alpha 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? trachea epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion HN Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Human parainfluenza 3 Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry HN alpha2,6 and 2,3 Sialic acids Carbohydrate lower respiratory epithelial cells ?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex DC-SIGN lectin Dendritic cells Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Adhesion Glycoprotein complex LAMP1 (CD107a) At cell surface: Dendritic cells, NK cells, Activated T lymphocytes, Embryonic cells
In lysosomes: Ubiquitous
Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lassa virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex α-dystroglycan Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex α-dystroglycan Adhesion molecule Muscle, skin, and many tissues Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? Glycoprotein complex CLEC4G (LSECtin) lectin Dendritic cells, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and lymph node Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine Tyro3 (TAM family) Receptor brain? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodents, Human Entry? virion membrane phosphatidylserine AXL (TAM family) Receptor Dendritic cells, macrophages? Dendritic cells Macropinocytosis?
Machupo virus Arenaviridae, Arenavirus ss-RNA Env Rodent, Human Entry Glycoprotein complex Transferin receptor (TFRC) Receptor Monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Hemagglutinin DC-SIGN lectin Dendritic cells Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Human Entry Hemagglutinin Nectin 4 (PVRL4) Adhesion molecule adherens junction of epithelial tissue or the chemical synapse of neurons Primary: Dendritic cells, secondary:lymphocytes and neurons, tertiary:airway epithelial cells Fusion with host cell membrane
Cultured Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Cell culture Entry Hemagglutinin CD46 Complement receptor airway epithelial cells, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, neurons Fusion with host cell membrane
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB2 Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Nipah virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB3 Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB2 Receptor endothelial cells and neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hendra virus Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus ss-RNA Env Bats, Horse, Human Entry Glycoprotein G EFNB3 Receptor neurons endothelial cells and neurons Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Newcastle disease virus Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus ss-RNA Env Chicken Adhesion HN 2,3 and 2,6 Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys ?
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G nAChR? Receptor neurons neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae, Lyssavirus ss-RNA Env Human, mammals Entry Glycoprotein G NCAM1 Adhesion molecule neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer cells neurons, salivary glands Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Major surface glycoprotein G DC-SIGN Lectin Dendritic cells primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae, Pneumovirus ss-RNA Env Human Adhesion Major surface glycoprotein G Heparan sulfate Polysaccharide ? primary: upper respiratory epithelium
secondary: lower respiratory epithelium, alveolar macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells
Macropinocytosis
Rinderpest virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbilivirus ss-RNA Env Bovine, ovine, swine Entry Hemagglutinin SLAMF1 Receptor Lymphocytes lymphocytes ?
Sendai virus Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus ss-RNA Env Rodents Entry Hemagglutinin Sialic acids Carbohydrate ? epithelium airway cells Fusion with host cell membrane?
or endocytosis?
Vesicular stomatitis virus Rhabdoviridae, Vesiculovirus ss-RNA Env Mammals Entry Glycoprotein LDLR family Receptor adrenal gland, Liver, lung, gastroinstestinal tract ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis